Table 3

Symptoms and signs by level of illness
 Symptoms and signs Level of illness§ p-value
Mild Moderate Severe
n = 219 n = 77 n = 21
Fever 219/219 (100) 76/76 (100) 21/21 (100) 1.00
Chills 48/212 (22.6) 29/76 (38.1) 16/21 (76.1) <0.001
Headache 119/191 (62.3) 53/71 (74.6) 13/21 (61.9) 0.16
Sore throat 168/199 (84.4) 56/72 (77.7) 18/21 (85.7) 0.41*
Runny nose 165/217 (76.04) 40/77 (51.9) 16/21 (76.1) <0.001
Cough 192/219 (87.6) 72/77 (93.5) 20/21 (95.2) 0.32*
Muscle aches 111/188 (59.04) 37/71 (52.1) 16/21 (76.1) 0.14
Difficult or fast breathing 78/208 (37.5) 32/75 (42.6) 17/21 (80.9) 0.001
Wheezing 39/211 (18.4) 15/75 (20) 10/21 (47.6) 0.01*
Decreased daily activity 64/207 (30.9) 39/75 (52) 15/20 (75) <0.001
Nausea or vomiting 32/216 (14.8) 21/75 (28) 5/21 (23.8) 0.03*

Data shown as number (%) unless indicated.

* Fisher’s exact test.

§ Symptoms and signs were classified as mild if there was no disturbance in people’s daily activities, as moderate if some daily activities were limited, and as severe if they were not able to work or do daily activities.

Mayxay et al.

Mayxay et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:444   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-444

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