Study protocol: the effect of vitamin D supplements on cardiometabolic risk factors among urban premenopausal women in a tropical country - a randomized controlled trial
1 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia
2 Julius Centre University of Malaya, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia
3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia
BMC Public Health 2013, 13:416 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-416Published: 1 May 2013
Besides its classical role in musculoskeletal diseases, vitamin D deficiency has recently been found to be associated with cardiometabolic risks such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Although Malaysia is a sunshine-abundant country, recent studies found that vitamin D deficiency prevalence was significantly high. However, few published studies that measured its effect on cardiometabolic risk factors were found in Malaysia. There are also limited clinical trials carried out globally that tried to establish the causality of vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks. Therefore, a double blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial on vitamin D and cardiometabolic risks is planned to be carried out.
The objective of this study is to investigate whether vitamin D supplements can reduce the cardiometabolic risk and improve the quality of life in urban premenopausal women with vitamin D deficiency.
Three hundred and twenty premenopausal women working in a public university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia will be randomized to receive either vitamin D supplement (50,000 IU weekly for 8 weeks and 50,000 IU monthly for 10 months) or placebo for 12 months. At baseline, all participants are vitamin D deficient (≤ 20 ng/ml or 50 nmol/l). Both participants and researchers will be blinded. The serum vitamin D levels of all participants collected at various time points will only be analysed at the end of the trial. Outcome measures such as 25(OH) D3, HOMA-IR, blood pressure, full lipid profiles will be taken at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Health related quality of life will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The placebo group will be given delayed treatment for six months after the trial.
This trial will be the first study investigating the effect of vitamin D supplements on both the cardiometabolic risk and quality of life among urban premenopausal women in Malaysia. Our findings will contribute to the growing body of knowledge in the role of vitamin D supplements in the primary prevention for cardiometabolic disease.