|Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses of vaccination programs in the general population|
|First author [Reference]||Chapalain []||Kandola []||Hudeckova []||Zhou []||Lugner []|
|WB income group||High||Upper-middle||High||High||High|
|Comparators||1. Vaccinate 13-yr-olds and women||1. Rubella eradication campaign||1. National vaccination campaign||1. Rubella vaccination program||1. Screen and vaccinate all unvaccinated in LVR|
|2. No vaccination||2. No campaign||2. No campaign||2. No vaccination program||2. Screen and vaccinate all pregnant in LVR|
|3. Screen and vaccinate all unvaccinated in NL|
|Cost components measured||Vaccination; specialist training; research; antenatal supervision; improvement of obstetric care; intensive care||NR||NR**||Vaccination; OP care; hospitalization; institutional care; special care; Indirect (premature mortality, disability, missed work)||Vaccination; screening; healthcare costs|
|Method of cost estimation||Top-down costing||NR||NR**||Micro-costing; Human capital approach (indirect costs)||Micro-costing|
|Time period for costs and benefits||15 years||5 years||NR**||40 years||16 years|
|Discounting (Rate)||Yes (NR)||NR||NR**||Yes (3%)||Yes (4%)|
|Outcomes||Mortality; lives saved||CRS cases prevented||Rubella cases prevented||Cases prevented; lives saved||QALYs|
|Method of outcome measurement||Primary analysis of program data||NR||NR**||Decision model||Model-based|
|Results—ICER (2012 US$/Outcome)||$20,474/Life saved||$3,335/CRS case prevented||$313/Case prevented||Vaccination program was dominant||1 dominated 2; the ICER comparing 3 to 1 was $114,575/QALY gained|
|Stated conclusion||The immunization program was cost-effective||Rubella eradication is highly cost-effective||National MMR immunization program was cost-effective||Two-dose MMR vaccination program is cost-effective||Screening and vaccinating all unvaccinated women is the most cost-effective|
*Not explicitly reported but inferred **Article in Slovak.
WB, World Bank; NR, Not Reported; NS, Not Scored; OP, Out Patient; LVR, Low vaccination coverage regions; NL, Netherlands; CDC, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CIDC, Center for Infectious Disease Control; QALYs, Quality-Adjusted Life-Years.
Babigumira et al.
Babigumira et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:406 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-406