Table 4

Multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors associated with social conditions, infectious diseases, psychological problems and all three of these outcomes (N = 2526)
Characteristics Social problems1 Infectious diseases2 Psychological problems3 Social problems1, infectious diseases2, and psychological problems3
Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age (in years) 1.04 (1.03–1.06)* 1.08 (1.06–1.10)* 1.06 (1.04–1.08)* 1.06 (1.04–1.07)*
Male gender 1.48 (1.19–1.84)* 1.03 (0.80–1.31) 0.65 (0.52–0.80)* -
Married or cohabiting 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 0.99 (0.70–1.41) - -
≥ High school education - - 1.04 (0.81–1.32) -
Having children under 18 years 1.14 (0.86–1.53) 1.40 (1.06–1.84)* 0.86 (0.65–1.12) 1.21 (0.93–1.57)
Self-referral to treatment 1.86 (1.50–2.30)* 1.31 (1.03–1.67)* 1.51 (1.23–1.85)* 1.36 (1.07–1.74)*
Use of alcohol as primary drugs 0.49 (0.29–0.83)* 1.48 (0.49–4.45) 0.66 (0.39–1.12) 1.40 (0.66–2.95)
Use of cannabis as primary drugs 0.47 (0.27–0.82)* 0.55 (0.17–1.82) 0.68 (0.39–1.19) 0.49 (0.20–1.21)
Use of prescription medicines as primary drugs - 0.62 (0.15–2.63) - -
Use of opiates as primary drugs 1.67 (0.99–2.83) 3.89 (1.32–11.46)* 1.11 (0.65–1.90) 3.24 (1.58–6.65)*
Use of stimulants as primary drugs 1.23 (0.72–2.08) 2.76 (0.92–8.20) 1.29 (0.75–2.23) 2.28 (1.10–4.72)*
Use of other drugs as primary drugs a - - - -

* P ≤ 0.05. a Others drugs – including hallucinogens, solvents/inhalants, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and anabolic steroids. Only variables statistically significant in univariate analyses were included in multivariate analyses. OR – odds ratio. CI – confidence interval. 1Homelessness or unemployment or threats of violence. 2HIV or hepatitis A or hepatitis B or hepatitis C. 3Depressive symptoms or psychological symptoms or suicidal thoughts or suicide attempts.

Onyeka et al.

Onyeka et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:380   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-380

Open Data