Table 2

Multinomial regression examining the relationship between psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics; overall sample (N = 9,099)
OR (95% CI)
Well/Mild Moderate Severe
Age 1.00 1.00 (0.99, 1.01) 1.01 (1.00, 1.02)
Gender
  Male 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Female 1.00 1.43 (1.23, 1.67)** 1.16 (0.95, 1.41)
Marital status
  Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Married 1.00 1.95 (1.48, 2.57)** 1.29 (0.88, 1.89)
  Formerly married 1.00 2.23 (1.48, 3.35)** 1.98 (1.20, 3.27)**
Education
  None 1.00 1.67 (1.17, 2.39)** 2.92 (1.82, 4.69)**
  Primary or less 1.00 1.19 (0.82, 1.72) 1.69 (1.05, 2.71)*
  Middle/JSS 1.00 1.00 (0.72, 1.40) 1.34 (0.87, 2.08)
  Secondary and above 1.00 1.00 1.00
Residential location
  Urban 1.00 0.85 (0.67, 1.09) 1.03 (0.78, 1.37)
  Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00
Wealth index
  First quintile 1.00 1.07 (0.71, 1.59) 0.96 (0.59, 1.57)
  Second 1.00 1.83 (1.23, 2.74)** 2.10 (1.34, 3.28)**
  Third 1.00 1.09 (0.73, 1.62) 0.96 (0.57, 1.61)
  Fourth 1.00 1.53 (1.06, 2.19)* 1.52 (0.98, 2.36)
  Fifth 1.00 1.00 1.00
Region
  Western 1.00 1.80 (1.10, 2.96)* 2.53 (1.28, 5.01)**
  Central 1.00 0.85 (0.50, 1.44) 1.65 (0.84, 3.25)
  Gt. Accra 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Volta 1.00 1.58 (0.97, 2.59) 2.39 (1.20, 4.78)*
  Eastern 1.00 1.72 (1.08, 2.73)* 5.03 (2.73, 9.26)**
  Ashanti 1.00 1.10 (0.68, 1.77) 3.00 (1.60, 5.62)**
  Brong Ahafo 1.00 1.59 (0.94, 2.68) 3.03 (1.46, 6.28)**
  Northern 1.00 2.05 (1.22, 3.45)** 6.51 (3.46, 12.24)**
  Upper East 1.00 2.67 (1.52, 4.69)** 4.31 (2.07, 8.98)**
  Upper West 1.00 1.29 (0.71, 2.36) 2.13 (0.98, 4.64)
Self-rated health
  Very healthy 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Somewhat healthy 1.00 1.75 (1.40, 2.19)** 1.92 (1.45, 2.55)**
  Unhealthy 1.00 2.81 (2.12, 3.72)** 2.98 (2.18, 4.09)**
Religion
  Christian 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Muslim 1.00 1.03 (0.75, 1.40) 1.10 (0.75, 1.60)
  Traditional 1.00 1.37 (0.96, 1.96) 1.22 (0.79, 1.89)
  No religion 1.00 1.50 (1.02, 2.19)* 1.51 (0.97, 2.33)

**p < 0.01; *p ≤ 0.05.

Sipsma et al.

Sipsma et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:288   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-288

Open Data