Table 1

Participant characteristics over all and by psychological distress status (column%)a

Overall

(N = 9,524)

Well/Mild

(81.3%)

Moderate

(11.7%)

Severe

(7.0%)

Age 37.8 (0.20) 36.5 (0.22) 42.4 (0.62) 45.8 (0.80)
Gender
  Male 44.0% 45.8% 34.8% 38.8%
  Female 56.0% 54.2% 65.2% 61.2%
Marital status
  Married 62.7% 60.7% 72.6% 69.4%
  Formerly married 10.0% 8.7% 14.3% 17.9%
  Never married 27.3% 30.6% 13.1% 12.7%
Education
  None 30.4% 25.3% 49.0% 58.0%
  Primary or less 20.6% 21.6% 16.7% 14.8%
  Middle/JSS 36.5% 39.1% 26.5% 22.3%
  Secondary and above 12.6% 14.0% 7.9% 4.9%
Residential location
  Urban 33.6% 35.7% 24.5% 23.8%
  Rural 66.4% 64.3% 75.5% 76.2%
Region
  Western 10.0% 10.1% 11.5% 7.2%
  Central 9.5% 9.9% 7.6% 7.4%
  Gt. Accra 10.5% 11.8% 6.1% 2.8%
  Volta 10.4% 10.7% 10.3% 7.0%
  Eastern 11.3% 11.0% 11.4% 14.4%
  Ashanti 18.1% 19.3% 11.8% 14.4%
  Brong Ahafo 7.7% 7.9% 7.2% 5.8%
  Northern 12.6% 10.0% 19.9% 30.7%
  Upper East 5.5% 4.9% 9.5% 6.7%
  Upper West 4.4% 4.4% 4.8% 3.6%
Wealth index
  First quintile (Poorest) 19.9% 19.3% 24.0% 20.0%
  Second quintile 20.7% 19.0% 26.6% 31.1%
  Third quintile 18.4% 19.3% 15.1% 13.9%
  Fourth quintile 19.2% 19.1% 18.8% 21.5%
  Fifth quintile (Wealthiest) 21.7% 23.3% 15.6% 13.5%
Self-rated health
  Very healthy 77.2% 80.9% 63.2% 57.8%
  Somewhat healthy 15.9% 14.0% 22.9% 26.3%
  Unhealthy 6.9% 5.1% 13.9% 15.9%
Religion
  Christian 71.9% 74.9% 61.5% 54.6%
  Muslim 17.5% 16.1% 21.4% 27.2%
  Traditional 5.8% 4.7% 10.6% 10.8%
  No religion 4.8% 4.3% 6.6% 7.3%
Women who have been in a relationship in the past 12 months
Important decisions should be made only by the men of the family
  Agree 30.4% 27.6% 39.6% 42.3%
  Disagree 69.6% 72.4% 60.4% 57.7%
A wife has a right to express her opinion
  Agree 86.5% 87.6% 82.9% 81.9%
  Disagree 13.5% 12.4% 17.1% 18.1%
A wife should tolerate being beaten in order to keep the family together
  Agree 23.6% 19.7% 35.1% 42.6%
  Disagree 76.4% 80.3% 64.9% 57.4%
Partner control+ (Range: 0 – 4) 0.5 (0.02) 0.5 (0.02) 0.8 (0.04) 0.9 (0.06)
Emotional abuse
  Yes 26.8% 25.5% 33.0% 27.8%
  No 73.2% 74.5% 67.0% 72.2%
Physical abuse
  Yes 4.6% 4.0% 5.1% 9.5%
  No 95.4% 96.0% 94.9% 90.5%

aValues presented are Mean (SE) and valid column% for continuous and categorical variables, respectively.

+Partner control is the number of the following statements to which participants responded “yes”: 1) Partner frequently accused [name] of being unfaithful; 2) Partner frequently tried to limit [name’s] contact with her family; 3) Partner insisted on knowing where [name] was at all times; 4) Partner did not trust [name] with money.

Sipsma et al.

Sipsma et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:288   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-288

Open Data