Table 4

Mapping between behaviour change techniques and FFIT programme sessions
Label Definition Sessions An example of how it is operationalized in FFIT
Social support
Social support (unspecified) Advise on, arrange or provide social support or non-contingent praise or reward for the behaviour week 1-7,10,12, email 2-4, reunion The coach points out that if the men haven’t done so already, they should meet up outside the group (e.g., a walking group) – week 3
Regulation
Reduce negative emotions Advise on ways of reducing negative emotions to facilitate performance of the behaviour week 4 The coach asks the men in their teams to come up with 5 barriers to physical activity (including not feeling like going out or that they can’t be bothered). Taking one barrier at a time, the coach asks the whole group to suggest how to overcome it – week 4
Feedback and monitoring
Feedback on behaviour Provide feedback on performance of the behaviour week 2-6,9-12, reunion Comparing their food diaries with the healthy eating plate can help the men understand the type of changes they may need for a healthier diet (i.e., smaller portions) – week 2
Feedback on outcome(s) of behaviour Provide feedback on the outcome of performance of the behaviour week 6,7,12 The coach takes each man individually to record his weight and waist measurement and tell him how much weight he has lost – week 6
Self-monitoring of behaviour Establish a method for the person to monitor and record the behaviour(s) as part of a behaviour change strategy week 1-12, email 1 The men are given a pedometer and encouraged to record their daily step count in their booklet – ongoing
Self-monitoring of outcome of behaviour Establish a method for the person to monitor and record the outcomes of the behaviour(s) as part of a behaviour change strategy week 1-12, email 1, reunion The men are encouraged to weigh themselves and record their weight in their booklet – ongoing
Repetition and substitution
Behavioural practice/rehearsal Prompt practice or rehearsal of the performance of the behaviour one or more times in a context or at a time when the performance may not be necessary, in order to increase habit and skill week 2-12, reunion The coach leads the men in physical activity sessions at the club each week and teaches them aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises they can do elsewhere – ongoing from week 2
Habit formation Prompt rehearsal and repetition of the behaviour in the same context repeatedly so that the context elicits the behaviour week 3-12 The men discuss how to increase their walking in their normal daily routines (week 3) and use this information to achieve their daily step count targets – ongoing from week 3
Behaviour substitution Prompt rehearsal and repetition of an alternative behaviour to replace an unwanted habitual behaviour week 3 The coach asks the men for examples of compensatory behaviour and for suggestions about how to avoid compensation – week 3
Generalisation of a target behaviour Advise to perform a behaviour already performed in a particular situation, in another situation week 4-8,11 The coach leads a discussion about local physical activity opportunities, provides a “Local Amenities Handout”, tells the men about any discounted offers and encourages those who are keen to set a SMART goal to try a new activity for next week – week 4
Graded tasks Set easy-to-perform tasks, making them increasingly difficult, but achievable, until the behaviour is performed week 2-12 The men set weekly step count targets that increase in difficulty as the programme progresses – ongoing from week 2
Antecedents
Avoidance/reducing exposure to cues for the behaviour Advise on how to avoid exposure to specific social and contextual/physical cues for the behaviour week 2,3,10 The men identify triggers for eating, drinking and exercising, and the coach asks them to suggest strategies to avoid them – week 10
Adding objects to the environment Add objects to the environment in order to facilitate performance of the behaviour week 1 The men are given a pedometer to encourage them to be more active on a daily basis – week 1
Restructuring the social environment Change, or advise to change the social environment in order to facilitate the behaviour or create barriers to the behaviour week 3 The men are advised to plan to do something active with friends to avoid sitting in front of the TV – week 3
Shaping knowledge
Information about antecedents Provide information about antecedents that reliably predict performance of the behaviour week 1,4,10 The coach asks the men to call out things that influence what they eat and leads a discussion about how difficult it can be to eat healthily and have an active life amidst all these other factors – week 1
Re-attribution Elicit perceived causes of behaviour and suggest alternative explanations week 1,11 The men put their initials on the “Locus of Control” (of eating) line in week 1 and the coach asks some to say why they placed their initials where they did. This exercise is repeated in week 11 and the men discuss how and why they have changed. The coach asks men who are still lower down the ‘scale’ what would help them move up the ‘scale’ and tries to identify some of the barriers stopping them doing this
Instruction on how to perform a behaviour Advise or agree on how to perform the behaviour week 1-11, email 6, reunion The coach gives out pedometers, explains how they work and demonstrates the correct positioning of them on the body – week 1
Self-belief
Focus on past successes Advise to think about or list previous successes in performing the behaviour (or parts of it) email 5 Email 5 suggests that now is a good time for the men to think back to what things were like before they started FFIT. What changes have they made to their eating and exercise routines since being on FFIT? How many of their old, unhealthy habits have they managed to replace by new, healthy eating and exercise habits?
Verbal persuasion about capability Tell the person that they can successfully perform the behaviour, arguing against self-doubts and asserting that they can and will succeed week 2,12, email 5, reunion The coach tells the men how confident he is that they will be successful in their goals – reunion
Goals and planning
Goal setting (behaviour) Set or agree a goal defined in terms of the behaviour to be achieved week 2-12, email 1,3-6, reunion The coach asks the men to think back to the discussion of step-by-step changes the previous week, and to set new SMART goals for where they want to be in 1 month’s time – week 12
Goal setting (outcome) Set or agree a goal defined in terms of a positive outcome of wanted behaviour week 3, email 1,3,4 The coach encourages the men to note down their own 5 and 10% weight loss targets on their “Personal Weekly Progress Record”. He asks them how they feel about these figures and whether they are achievable – week 3
Behavioural contract Create a written specification of the behaviour to be performed, agreed by the person and witnessed by another week 2 The coach asks the men in pairs to think about their food diaries, discuss two goals to help them eat more healthily and write them in the “Setting SMART Goals Week 2” boxes – week 2
Commitment Ask the person to make statements indicating strong commitment to change the behaviour week 1 The coach stresses that he needs full commitment to the programme from everyone and that nobody should have more than 2 absences. He asks if anyone can foresee any difficulties with that – week 1
Action planning (includes Implementation intentions) Prompt detailed planning of performance of the behaviour (must include at least one of context, frequency, duration and intensity) week 2-5,7,10,12, email 2, reunion The men are told their goals must be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Recorded and Time limited – week 2
Review behaviour goals Review behaviour goal(s) jointly with the person and consider modifying goal(s) or behaviour change strategy in light of achievement week 3-8,10,12 The coach asks the men to spend 5 minutes in their teams discussing their goals from last week and setting new ones using the “Setting SMART Goals Week 5” boxes – week 5
Review outcome goal(s) Review outcome goal(s) jointly with the person and modify goal(s) or behaviour change strategy in light of achievement week 6,7,12 The coach asks the men to compare their 5 and 10% weight loss targets with the weight they have lost so far, and to discuss in their teams whether they feel they are on course to achieving a 5-10% weight loss. If so, how are they doing this? If not, do they feel they could change anything? – week 7
Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal Draw attention to discrepancies between a person’s current behaviour and the person’s previously set outcome goals, behavioural goals or action plans week 3,7,12, email 2,3 The coach asks the men to look at their Week 2 SMART goals and encourages them to say what has gone well for them since the last session. He also asks if anything has gone less well; and, where goals have not been achieved, he asks the men to consider whether they were too ambitious – week 3
Problem solving (includes Relapse prevention) Analyse factors influencing the behaviour, and generate or select strategies that include overcoming barriers and/or increasing facilitators week 3-8,10-12, email 1,5, reunion The coach encourages the men to talk about any problems they have had and how they have overcome them. If any men are currently experiencing problems, he encourages the other group members to provide suggestions about how they can overcome the difficulties – reunion
Comparison of outcomes
Persuasive source Present verbal or visual communication from a credible source in favour of or against the behaviour week 5,6, email 5,6 The coach invites a guest (usually a former participant) to talk to the men about their experiences of the programme – week 6
Identity
Framing/reframing Suggest the deliberate adoption of a perspective or new perspective on behaviour in order to change cognitions or emotions about performing the behaviour week 11 Men repeat the “Locus of Control” (of eating) exercise, and discuss how and why this has changed since the first session. The coach asks the men who are still lower down the ‘scale’ what would help them move up the ‘scale’ and tries to identify some of the barriers stopping them doing this – week 11
Natural consequences
Information about health consequences Provide information about the health consequences of performing the behaviour week 3,4, email 3 The coach tells the men how being physically active is associated with reducing risk of heart disease, reducing risk of cancer and avoiding depression – week 4
Information about emotional consequences Provide information about the emotionalconsequences of performing the behaviour week 3,4 The coach tells the men how losing just 5-10% of their starting weight and keeping it off can make them feel more alert and energetic, and improve their self-esteem and general outlook on life – week 3
Salience of consequences Use methods to emphasise the consequences of changing the behaviour week 7,11,12 Sand bags (or other tangible means of demonstrating weight loss both individually and in a group) are provided – week 7
Monitoring of emotional consequences Prompt assessment of feelings after attempts at performing the behaviour week 5,11 The coach asks the men to cast their mind back to the very first session and remember how they felt, and to compare that with how they feel right now and discuss any interesting differences – week 11
Comparison of behaviour
Social comparison Draw attention to others’ performance to explicitly elicit comparisons week 5,7 The coach asks the men who are doing well increasing their physical activity how they feel as a result, in the hope that their positive feedback will inspire and encourage others – week 5
Demonstration of the behaviour Provide an example of the behaviour being performed for the person to aspire to or imitate week 2-12, reunion The coach demonstrates aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises in club-based physical activity sessions – ongoing from week 2
Covert learning
Vicarious consequences Prompt observation of the consequences for others when they perform the behaviour week 6 The coach invites a guest (usually a former participant) to talk to the men about their experiences of the programme – week 6

Gray et al.

Gray et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:232   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-232

Open Data