Table 2

Characteristics of case and control groups
Variable Control (N=142) n (%) Case (N=71) n (%) **P-value
Gender
  Female 72(50.7) 36(50.3) *
  Male 70(49.3) 35(49.3)
Age (years)
  Male (M ± SD) 59.93±10.46 59.9 ± 10.14†† *
  Female (M ± SD) 55.99±10.29 55.65 ±10.36
Level of education 0.147
  No formal education 36(25.4) 28 (39.4)
  Elementary 45(31.7) 22 (31.0)
  Junior/Senior high school 19 (9.2) 7 (9.9)
  Diploma/ College/University 42(29.6) 14 (19.7)
Occupation 0.776
  Employed/Government 14( 9.9 ) 6 (8.5)
  Employed/Private 15(10.6) 10(14.1)
  Housewife(unemployed ) 58(40.8) 33(46.5)
  Retired 26(18.3) 11(15.5)
  Self-employed 29(20.4) 11(15.5)
Total household Income
  < $ 425 83(58.5) 46(78.8)
  ≥ $ 425 59(41.5) 25(21.2)
  M ± SD 471.07 ± 285.4 413.20 ± 237.7 0.141
Family history of CRC in first degree 2(1.4) 7 (9.9) 0.004
Family history of CRC in second degree 1(0.7) 6 (8.5) 0.003
Smoking status 0.948
  Never 103(72.7) 50 (70.6)
  Former smoker, (pack/year) < 20 9 (6.3) 7 (9.8)
  Former smoker, (pack/year) ≥ 20 8 (5.6) 2 (2.8)
  Current smoker, (pack/year) < 20 13 (9.1) 5 (7.0)
  Current smoker, (pack/year) ≥ 20 9 (6.3) 7 (9.8)
Physical activity 0.498
  Active 73 (51.4) 33 (46.5)
  Sedentary 69 (48.6) 38 (53.5)
Common ways of cooking meat 0.282
  Fried 28 (19.7) 20 (28.2)
  Fried /Boiling 71 (50.0) 35 (49.3)
  Smoking/Grilling 43 (30.3) 16 (22.5)
Common ways of preparing vegetable 0.148
  Raw/ fresh 78 (54.9) 29 (40.8)
  Boiled 18 (12.7) 8 (11.3)
  Fried, Fried / freezed 46(32.4) 34(47.9)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs use
  Ibuprofen 22 (15.5) 5 (7.1) 0.081
  Aspirin 16(11.3) 1(1.4) 0.012
  Acetaminophen 29(20.42) 4(5.6) 0.049
  Baby aspirin 19(13.4) 15(21.1) 0.146
Vitamin use 18(12.7) 7(9.85) 0.547
Mineral use 36(25.3) 8(11.3) 0.017
Body mass index (Kg/m2)
  ≤ 24.9 48(33.7) 22(32.8)
  > 24.9 94(66.3) 49(67.2)
  Mean BMI 26.67± 4.2 27.23 ± 4.2 0.361
Energy Intake (kcal/d) (M ± SD) 2063 ± 40.7 2212 ± 50.7 0.045

*Matched variables of the study 1USD= 9,980.00 Rial Significant difference at p< 0.05 M ± SD: Mean ± Standard deviation.

1MET: metabolic equivalent task (1MET=energy expenditure of sitting quietly or approximately 1kcal/kg of body weight per hour).

**P-values were estimated using chi-square (χ2) statistics, independent t-test for the difference between case and control groups.

†Meanage at the interview.

†† Mean age at the diagnosis.

Safari et al.

Safari et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:222   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-222

Open Data