Table 1

Usual gait speed and fast gait speed groups, sub-divided into slower, intermediate and faster groups (n = 385)
Usual gait speed Fast gait speed
Characteristics General Slower Intermediate Faster p Slower Intermediate Faster p
(N=385) (N=75) (N=207) (N=103) (N=58) (N=218) (N=109)
Demographics
Age, years 71.4 (5.7) 75.0 (7.1) 70.8 (5.0) 69.8 (4.7) <0.001 74.7 (6.6) 71.2 (5.4) 69.9 (4.8) <0.001
Female, n (%) 248 (64.4) 52 (69.3) 151 (72.9) 45 (43.7) <0.001 45 (77.6) 158 (72.5) 45 (41.3) <0.001
Illiterate, n (%) 111 (28.9) 29 (38.7) 61 (31.8) 21 (20.4) 0.028 22 (37.9) 69 (31.8) 20 (18.3) 0.011
Income level
0.0–1.0 189 (51.5) 41 (56.9) 109 (55.3) 39 (39.8) 0.103 32 (59.3) 115 (55.6) 42 (39.6) 0.003
1.1–3.0 128 (34.9) 23 (31.9) 64 (32.5) 41 (41.8) 19 (35.2) 70 (33.8) 39 (36.8)
≥ 3.1 50 (13.6) 8 (11.1) 24 (12.2) 18 (18.4) 3 (5.6) 22 (10.6) 25 (23.6)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
White 184 (47.8) 37 (49.3) 105 (50.7) 42 (40.8) 0.531 28 (48.3) 106 (48.6) 50 (45.9) 0.499
Black 43 (11.2) 11 (14.7) 18 (8.7) 14 (13.6) 10 (17.2) 21 (9.6) 12 (11.0)
Pardo or brown 143 (37.1) 24 (32.0) 76 (36.7) 43 (41.7) 17 (29.3) 85 (39.0) 41 (37.6)
Mental health
MMSE score, points 23.9 (3.5) 22.2 (3.7) 23.9 (3.3) 25.1 (3.3) <0.001 22.1 (3.7) 23.7 (3.3) 25.2 (3.1) <0.001
Depressive symptoms, n (%) 76 (19.7) 17 (22.7) 47 (22.7) 12 (11.7) 0.001 17 (29.3) 43 (19.7) 16 (14.7) 0.077
High concern of falling, n (%) 192 (49.9) 55 (73.3) 109 (52.7) 28 (27.2) <0.001 43 (74.1) 118 (54.1) 31 (28.4) <0.001
Physical health
Heart disease, n (%) 77 (20) 19 (25.3) 42 (20.3) 16 (15.5) 0.269 40 (69.0) 49 (22.5) 16 (14.7) 0.249
Hypertension, n (%) 249 (64.7) 52 (69.3) 135 (65.2) 62 (60.2) 0.44 8 (13.8) 150 (68.8) 59 (54.1) 0.025
Stroke, n (%) 28 (7.3) 11 (14.7) 13 (6.3) 4 (3.9) 0.017 22 (37.9) 17 (7.8) 3 (2.8) 0.029
Diabetes, n (%) 110 (28.6) 33 (44.0) 56 (27.1) 21 (20.4) 0.002 21 (36.2) 66 (30.3) 22 (20.2) 0.038
Arthritis, n (%) 89 (23.1) 27 (36.0) 48 (23.2) 14 (13.6) 0.002 4 (6.9) 55 (25.2) 13 (11.9) 0.001
Lung disease, n (%) 37 (9.6) 9 (12.0) 18 (8.7) 10 (9.7) 0.714 23 (39.7) 23 (10.6) 10 (9.2) 0.685
Urinary incontinence, n (%) 72 (18.8) 29 (38.7) 34 (16.4) 9 (8.8) <0.001 33 (56.9) 37 (17) 12 (11) <0.001
“Very good” and “Good” self rated health, n (%) 203 (52.7) 33 (44.0) 107 (51.7) 63 (61.2) 0.15 24 (41.4) 116 (53.2) 63 (57.8) 0.086
Two or more falls, n (%) 59 (15.3) 17 (22.7) 35 (16.9) 7 (6.8) 0.01 30 (51.7) 34 (15.6) 9 (8.3) 0.004
Single fall, n (%) 153 (39.7) 33 (44.0) 85 (41.1) 35 (34) 0.342 2.95 (1.51) 86 (39.4) 37 (33.9) 0.081
Three or more diseases, n (%) 140 (36.6) 43 (58.1) 75 (36.4) 22 (21.6) <0.001 33 (56.9) 84 (38.9) 23 (21.3) <0.001
Polypharmacy 133 (34.5) 39 (52.0) 70 (33.8) 24 (23.3) <0.001 30 (51.7) 80 (36.7) 23 (21.1) <0.001
Fatigue, n (%) 43 (11.2) 12 (16.0) 27 (13.0) 4 (3.9) 0.018 10 (17.2) 28 (12.8) 5 (4.6) 0.023
Physical functioning
77 (20) 31 (41.3) 37 (17.9) 9 (8.7) <0.001 25 (43.1) 38 (17.4) 14 (12.8) <0.001
Low PAL
Impaired ADL, n (%) 25 (6.6) 11 (15.1) 11 (5.3) 3 (3.0) 0.004 10 (17.9) 12 (5.5) 3 92.8) 0.001

Abbreviations: MMSE: Mini-Mental Score Examination; PAL: Physical Activity Level; ADL: Activities of Daily Living.

Income level is presented as monthly income measured in multiples of the minimum wage (US$ 290 in 2009).

Continuous and discrete variables were compared using one-way ANOVA.

Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-squared test.

p<0.05.

Ruggero et al.

Ruggero et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:182   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-182

Open Data