Table 2

Bivariate association of behavioural factors with HIV infection among female drug users recruited in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Positive HIV test (n = 77) n (%) Total (n = 269) Crude OR (95% CI) p value
HIV Knowledge scores
  6 - 9 66 (27.8) 237 1.00
  0 - 5 11 (34.4) 32 1.36 (0.62-2.97) 0.445
Drug use behaviour
Ever injected illegal/non-medical drugs
  No 8 (13.8) 58 1.00
  Yes 69 (32.7) 211 3.04 (1.37-6.76) 0.006
Ever used a needle or syringe previously used by someone else
  No/Non-IDU 23 (17.4) 132 1.00
  Yes 54 (39.4) 137 3.08 (1.75-5.43) <0.001
Frequency of injecting with a needle or syringe previously used by someone else in the past one month
  Non-IDU/Never 24 (17.5) 137 1.00
  Occasionally/About half the time 36 (44.4) 81 3.77 (2.02-7.01) <0.001
  Always/Most times 17 (33.3) 51 2.35 (1.13-4.89) 0.022
Frequency of sharing cooker/vial/container, cotton/filter, or rinse water when injecting in the past one month
  Never/Non-IDU 19 (22.1) 86 1.00
  Sometimes 17 (21.8) 78 0.98 (0.47-2.06) 0.963
  Always/Often 41 (39.0) 105 2.26 (1.19-4.30) 0.013
Frequency of injecting drugs in the past one month
  Non-IDU 8 (13.8) 58 1.00
  6 times a week or LESS 9 (15.5) 58 1.15 (0.41-3.22) 0.793
  1 time a day or MORE 60 (39.2) 153 4.03 (1.79-9.10) 0.001
Sexual behaviour
Ever had sexual intercourse
  No 2 (4.4) 45 1.00
  Yes 75 (33.5) 224 10.82 (2.55-45.89) 0.001
Sexual intercourse in the last 12 months with any type of partner
  No/Never had sex 4 (5.9) 68 1.00
  Yes 73 (36.3) 201 9.13 (3.19-26.08) <0.001
Sexual intercourse with regular partner in the last 12 months
  No/Never had sex 15 (14.6) 103 1.00
  Yes 62 (37.3) 166 3.50 (1.86-6.58) <0.001
Sexual intercourse with commercial partner in the last 12 months
  No/Never had sex 19 (13.8) 138 1.00
  Yes 58 (44.3) 131 4.98 (2.75-9.02) <0.001
Sexual intercourse with non-regular non-commercial partner in the last 12 months
  No/Never had sex 25 (15.0) 167 1.00
  Yes 52 (51.0) 102 5.91 (3.32-10.51) <0.001
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all regular partners
  Never had sex/No sex with regular partner in the last 12 months 15 (14.6) 103 1.00
  Always/Often 20 (32.3) 62 2.79 (1.30-6.00) 0.008
  Sometimes/Never 42 (40.4) 104 3.97 (2.03-7.79) <0.001
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all commercial partners
  Never had sex/No sex with commercial partner in the last 12 months 19 (13.8) 138 1.00
  Always/Often 36 (54.5) 66 7.52 (3.79-14.91) <0.001
  Sometimes/Never 22 (33.8) 65 3.20 (1.58-6.49) 0.001
Frequency of condom use in the last 12 months with all non-regular non-commercial partners
  Never had sex/No sex with casual partner in the last 12 months 25 (15.0) 167 1.00
  Always/Often 20 (45.5) 44 4.73 (2.28-9.82) <0.001
  Sometimes/Never 32 (55.2) 58 6.99 (3.58-13.66) <0.001

Non-IDU, non-injecting drug user.

OR, odds ratio.

CI, confidence interval.

Ghimire et al.

Ghimire et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1238   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1238

Open Data