Table 3

Main effects
Outcome measures n N Studies Cohen’s d (95% CI) Heterogeneity Test for overall effect
Post-test
Subjective well-being 28 Ne=1449 Nc=1265 [29,32-34,51,56-59,61,62,64,66-71,73,75,77,79-81,84,85] 0.34 (0.22 – 0.45) Q=53.5, df=27, T2=0.04 (p<.01); I2=49.5% Z=5.82 (p<.01)
Psychological well-being 20 Ne=2511 Nc=977 [29,30,32,33,51-55,60,62,65,69,74-77,81-84] 0.20 (0.09 – 0.30) Q=26.8, df=19, T2=0.01 (p=0.11); I2=29.0% Z=3.65 (p<.01)
Depression 14 Ne=2435 Nc=760 [30,51-55,61,63,69,74,76,80,82,83] 0.23 (0.09 – 0.38) Q=24.5, df=13, T2=0.03 (p=0.03); I2=47.0% Z=3.21 (p<.01)
Follow-up
Subjective well-being 6 Ne=329 Nc=298 [51,57,62,67,69,77] 0.22 (0.05 – 0.38) Q=5.05, df=5, T2=0.00 (p=0.41); I2=1.1% Z=2.61 (p<.01)
Psychological well-being 6 Ne=1830 Nc=417 [30,52-55,62,69,74,77] 0.16 (0.02 – 0.30) Q=6.8, df=5, T2=0.01 (p=0.24); I2=26.0% Z=2.20 (p=.03)
Depression 5 Ne=1765 Nc=343 [30,51-55,69,74] 0.17 (−0.06 – 0.39) Q=11.1, df=4, T2=0.04 (p=0.03); I2=63.9% Z=1.44 (p=.15)

n = Number of studies, N = Number of subjects, Ne = Number of subjects in experimental group; Nc = Number of subjects in control group.

Bolier et al.

Bolier et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:119   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-119

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