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Invasively-treated incidence of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease and associated factors in Taiwan: 2000–2011 nationwide hospitalized data analysis

Nien-Tzu Chang1, Chien-Lung Chan2, Yu-Tzuen Lu2, Jin-Chyr Hsu3, Yuan-Nian Hsu3, Dachen Chu45 and Nan-Ping Yang35*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

2 Department of Information Management, Yuan-Ze University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

3 Department of Medical Research, Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Taoyuan, Taiwan

4 Department of Surgery, Taipei-City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan

5 Institute of Public Health, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

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BMC Public Health 2013, 13:1107  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1107

Published: 1 December 2013



Lower extremity (LE) peripheral artery disease (PAD), which is associated with a reduced quality of life and increased mortality from atherosclerotic cardio-/cerebro-vascular occlusion, is a significant public health problem, especial for an aging society such as that of Taiwan.


Specific datasets of the 2000–2011 nationwide inpatient databases were analyzed. Two inclusion criteria, including one of the major diagnosis codes of PAD and one of three categorical invasive treatments of LE PAD, were used consecutively to select cases diagnosed as LE PAD and receiving invasive treatment. The epidemiology of invasively-treated PAD in Taiwan was estimated, and the influences of potential confounders on these invasively-treated methods were evaluated.


In general, the invasively-treated incidence of PAD in Taiwan doubled, from 3.73/10,000 (in 2000) to 7.48/10,000 (in 2011). On average, the total direct medical cost of one hospitalized and invasively-treated PAD case ranged from $US 4,600 to $US 5,900. The annual cases of bypass surgery for the PAD cases averaged 1,000 and the cases for limb amputation ranged from 4,100 to 5,100 annually. However, the number of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures remarkably increased by 15 times, from 600/year to 9,100/year, from 2000 to 2011. 51.3% of all the enrolled cases were treated with limb amputations, and female, young and middle-aged people (30–65 years of age), DM patients and those on a low income had a tendency to undergo amputation due to PAD. 37.6% of all the enrolled cases were treated with PTAs related to hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia and catastrophic Illness. 2-year PTA failure rates of 22.13%, 11.91% and 10.61% were noted among the first (2000–2001), second (2004–2005) and the third (2008–2009) cohort groups, respectively.


In Taiwan, a gender difference and age and period effects on the invasively-treated incidence of LE PAD were observed. Female, young and middle-aged people (30–50 and 50–65 years of age), DM patients and those on a low income had a tendency to undergo amputation. The number of PTA procedures remarkably increased, but the 2-year failure rate of PTAs reduced from 2000 to 2011.

Treated incidence; Associated factors; Lower extremity; Peripheral arterial disease