Table 4

Distribution of children (%) under 5 years according to socio-demographic, birth and breastfeeding characteristics, and morbidities
2003 2010
(n = 200) (n = 388)
Categorical variables N* % N* % p-value**
Living with biological parents
 Living with biological mother and father 139 69.5% 259 66.8% 0.501
 Living with only one biological parent or neither one 61 30.5% 129 33.2%
Delivery type
 Natural 146 86.4% 292 79.8% 0.065
 C-section 23 13.6% 74 20.2%
Birth weight
 Above 2,500 g 166 94.9% 305 90.5% 0.085
 Below or equal to 2,500 g 9 5.1% 32 9.5%
Breastfeeding at birth
 Lacking 11 5.6% 12 3.2% 0.158
 Present 184 94.4% 364 96.8%
Duration of exclusive breastfeeding †
 More than 30 days 114 64.0% 159 56.8% 0.123
 Equal to or less than 30 days 64 36.0% 121 43.2%
Diarrhoea in the last 15 days
 Lacking 131 65.5% 315 81.8% < 0.001
 Present 69 34.5% 70 18.2%
Hospitalisation at least once in life
 No 159 80.7% 243 62.8% < 0.001
 Yes 38 19.3% 144 37.2%
Anaemia diagnosis
 No 69 49.6% 252 72.2% < 0.001
 Yes 70 50.4% 97 27.8%
Parasitosis diagnosis
 No 110 68.3% 207 62.3% 0.194
 Yes 51 31.7% 125 37.7%
Has lived in rural or riverine area before
 No 197 98.5% 363 93.6% 0.007′
 Yes 3 1.5% 25 6.4%
Child length of time living in the urban area
 Since birth 181 90.5% 311 80.2% 0.001
 After birth 19 9.5% 77 19.8%

Assis Brasil, AC, 2003 and 2010.

*Missing in some variables.

**p-values without a mark ( ): Pearson’s chi-square test; with a mark ( ' ): Fisher's exact test.

Excluding children that were only breastfed.

Ramalho et al.

Ramalho et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1098   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1098

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