Table 2

Distribution of children (%) under 5 years according to socio-demographic and economic characteristics
2003 2010
(n = 200) (n = 388)
Variables N* % N* % p-value**
Gender
 Male 94 47.0% 197 50.8% 0.386
 Female 106 53.0% 191 49.2%
Age
 Under 1 year 35 17.5% 81 20.9% 0.499
 From 1 to 2 years 45 22.5% 86 22.2%
 From 2 to 3 years 42 21.0% 60 15.5%
 From 3 to 4 years 43 21.5% 86 22.2%
 From 4 to 5 years 35 17.5% 75 19.3%
Predominant material in the house floor
 Cement, brick, ceramic tile, slab-stone 32 16.0% 112 28.9% 0.001
 Wood or soil 168 84.0% 275 71.1%
Electric power supply at home
 Lacking 22 11.0% 12 3.1% < 0.001
 Present 178 89.0% 376 96.9%
Drinking water treatment
 Without treatment; lack of mineral water 65 32.5% 135 34.8% < 0.001
 Mineral water without treatment 15 7.5% 131 33.8%
 Boiled, strained or filtered 84 42.0% 84 21.6%
 Chlorinated 36 18.0% 38 9.8%
Waste disposal
 Council collection 179 89.5% 370 95.4% 0.024
 Buried or burned 8 4.0% 8 2.1%
 Dumped in land or river 13 6.5% 10 2.6%
Open sewage
 Lacking 161 80.9% 235 60.6% < 0.001
 Present 38 19.1% 153 39.4%
Sanitary installation
 Toilet (with running water) 31 15.5% 242 62.4% < 0.001
 Pit toilet 128 64.0% 110 28.4%
 Lacking sanitary installations 41 20.5% 36 9.3%
Production of food for own consumption
 No 84 71.8% 177 45.6% < 0.001
 Yes 33 28.2% 211 54.4%

Assis Brasil, AC, 2003 and 2010.

*Missing in some variables **Person’s chi-square test.

Ramalho et al.

Ramalho et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:1098   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1098

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