Table 2

Risk factors of NCDs and aging
Risk factor studied Disease or trait Acclerated aging and impaired function Reference
Smoking Humoral immunity Immune system aging [48]
Inflammatory response Immune system aging [53]
Heart rate variabiltiy Autnomous nervous system aging [54]
Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Elastosis of the neck Skin aging [57]
Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Obesity, BMI, high calorie intake, Impaired immune response Immune system aging [59]
Waist-hip ratio, skin-folds, CD8 Tcell activation Immune system aging [59]
Body weight Lipodystrophy Adipocyte aging [60]
Heart rate variabiltiy Autnomous nervous system aging [61]
Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Alopecia Hair aging [62]
Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Dyslipidemia Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Alopecia Hair aging [62]
History of diabetes Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Hypertension, Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
High resting pulse Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Bone mineral density Bone aging [58]
Other chronic diseases, Immunosenescence Immune system aging [64]
Comorbidity Lipodystrophy Adipocyte aging [65]
Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Medication intake Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
UV light/sun exposure Alopecia Hair aging [62]
Low sun exposure Elastosis of the neck Skin aging [57]
Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Health behaviours Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Low level of mental activity Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Physical inactivity Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Depression Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Poor diet Sacropenia Muscle aging [66]
Weight loss/no weight gain Osteoporosis Bone aging [63]
Low education Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]
Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular aging [56]
Psychosocial factors Alzheimer Premature cognitive impairment, CNS aging [55]

Content of table is illustrative, not exhaustive.

Imboden and Probst-Hensch

Imboden and Probst-Hensch BMC Public Health 2013 13:1094   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1094

Open Data