Table 1

Characteristics of the analysis sample, Reykjavik Study (1967–1992) and Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study (2002–2006)
Men (N = 2068) Women (N = 2741) P-valuea
Total Primary education N = 456 22.1% Secondary education N = 1055 51.0%

College/ University

N = 557 26.9%

p-valuea education Total Primary education N = 1145 41.8% Secondary education N = 1277 46.6%

College/ University

N = 319 11.6%

p-valuea education men vs women P < 0.001
Midlife factors
Age, Mean (SD) 47.5(7.1) 47.1 46.6 46.6 0.367 48.1 (7.2) 48.8 47.4 48.8 0.567 <0.001 b
≥1 chronic diseases c (%) 29.6 29.8 30.4 27.8 0.550 24.8 27.5 22.9 22.9 0.024 <0.001
Married/living together (%) 89.9 87.2 91.0 90.4 0.126 83.8 83.4 84.7 81.6 0.524 <0.001
Occupation (%)
 Homemaker/miscellaneous 4.2 8.1 3.9 1.6 <0.001 74.1 80.4 72.7 57.1 <0.001 <0.001
 Manual 38.2 58.6 46.6 5.4 3.7 6.6 2.0 0.3
 Services 30.6 22.1 36.2 26.8 17.3 12.2 21.1 20.1
 Professional 27.1 11.2 13.3 66.2 4.9 0.8 4.2 22.6
Did not own house (%) 10.8 13.8 10.2 9.5 0.061 11.1 14.2 8.8 8.5 <0.001 0.807
Did not personally own car (%) 13.1 21.3 11.2 10.1 <0.001 30.2 37.1 26.2 21.3 <0.001 <0.001
Housing features d
 Lack of 2–6 features 3.7 8.1 3.1 1.1 <0.001 2.9 5.6 1.1 0.6 <0.001 0.265
 Lack of 1 feature 44.3 53.1 45.0 35.9 45.7 53.3 42.2 32.6
 Possesses all features 52.0 38.8 51.8 63.0 51.4 41.1 56.7 66.8
Early life circumstances (from AGES-Reykjavik)
Not enough to eat (%) 5.2 8.8 4.7 3.2 0.001 2.8 4.3 2.0 0.9 0.001 <0.001
Old age outcome measures
Mobility limitations e (%) 26.8 31.1 28.2 20.6 <0.001 39.5 43.8 37.7 32.0 <0.001 <0.001
Indication of depressed mood (%) 11.0 14.7 11.4 7.2 <0.001 12.8 14.8 12.3 7.2 0.001 0.058

a Based on Chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests or ANOVA based F-tests for continuous variables; b This difference reflects the fact that women were recruited later; c Number of the following self-reported diseases at baseline: Diabetes, angina pectoris, disease of the heart valves, coronary thrombosis, another heart disease, disease of the lungs, disease of the kidneys, disease of the thyroid, disease of the stomach/intestines, arthritis, glaucoma, cancer, asthma or COPD, and tuberculosis; d Housing features include: central heating, water closet, bathtub, shower, piped cold water, and piped hot water; e Mobility limitation was considered to be present when a person reported any difficulty walking 500 meters or climbing 10 steps.

Groffen et al.

Groffen et al. BMC Public Health 2013 13:101   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-101

Open Data