Table 3

Multiple regression analyses examining correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors
Sunscreen use Staying in the shade Use of sun protective clothing Past year sunburn rate
b (95% CI) Adj. Meana b (95% CI) Adj. Meana b (95% CI) Adj. Meana AOR (95% CI) Adj. %b
Nativity/length of time in the U.S.
 Born in U.S. Reference 2.57 Reference 3.52 Reference 2.34 Reference 42.8
 < 10 years in U.S. 0.31 (−0.03, 0.66) 2.88 0.07 (−0.21, 0.36) 3.59 0.06 (−0.14, 0.26) 2.40 1.08 (0.61, 1.92) 44.5
 10–14 years in U.S. 0.16 (−0.16, 0.49) 2.73 −0.12 (−0.41, 0.17) 3.40 0.08 (−0.14, 0.31) 2.42 0.88 (0.52, 1.52) 40.2
 ≥ 15 years in U.S 0.14 (−0.08, 0.36) 2.71 0.01 (−0.21, 0.23) 3.53 0.03 (−0.12, 0.17) 2.37 1.08 (0.76, 1.55) 44.5
Language used when speaking
 Mostly/only Spanish Reference 2.50 Reference Reference*** 2.52 Reference**
 Spanish/English equally 0.20 (−0.03, 0.42) 2.70 −0.11 (−0.30, 0.07) 3.57 −0.10 (−0.25, 0.06) 2.42 1.51 (1.00, 2.26) 34.9
 Mostly/only English 0.28 (0.04, 0.51) 2.78 −0.06 (−0.25, 0.13) 3.46 −0.32 (−0.49, –0.15) 2.20 1.96 (1.29, 2.98) 43.8
Hispanic origin
 Mexico Reference 2.67 Reference 3.52 Reference* 2.41 Reference* 44.0
 Central/South America −0.02 (−0.25, 0.20) 2.64 −0.10 (−0.31, 0.11) 3.42 −0.15 (−0.36, 0.05) 2.25 0.71 (0.50, 1.00) 36.6
 Puerto Rico −0.06 (−0.36, 0.24) 2.60 0.07 (−0.19, 0.33) 3.59 −0.13 (−0.34, 0.07) 2.27 1.26 (0.78, 2.05) 49.2
 Cuba −0.05 (−0.50, 0.41) 2.62 −0.09 (−0.49, 0.31) 3.44 −0.36 (−0.69, –0.02) 2.05 0.51 (0.32, 0.83) 30.1
 Other 0.15 (−0.19, 0.48) 2.81 0.10 (−0.20, 0.40) 3.63 0.16 (−0.08, 0.40) 2.56 1.28 (0.72, 2.28) 49.5
Region of U.S. residence
 Northeast Reference 2.70 Reference** 3.18 Reference*** 2.06 Reference 39.0
 Midwest −0.29 (−0.66, 0.09) 2.42 0.25 (−0.07, 0.58) 3.43 0.00 (−0.29, 0.29) 2.06 1.96 (0.98. 3.91) 53.8
 South −0.13 (−0.44, 0.19) 2.58 0.35 (0.11, 0.60) 3.53 0.26 (0.04, 0.48) 2.34 1.14 (0.67, 1.93) 41.9
 West 0.05 (−0.25, 0.36) 2.75 0.43 (0.17, 0.68) 3.61 0.46 (0.24, 0.67) 2.51 1.24 (0.73, 2.11) 43.6
Gender
 Male Reference*** Reference** 3.40 Reference*** 2.47 Reference 42.4
 Female 0.90 (0.70, 1.10) 2.18 0.22 (0.07, 0.37) 3.62 −0.20 (−0.31, –0.08) 2.27 1.08 (0.82, 1.43) 44.1
Age (years)
 18–29 Reference** 2.78 Reference 3.43 Reference*** 2.16 Reference*** 52.0
 30–39 0.00 (−0.25, 0.25) 2.79 0.12 (−0.07, 0.32) 3.55 0.19 (0.05, 0.33) 2.35 0.92 (0.59, 1.44) 50.2
 40–49 −0.17 (−0.44, 0.10) 2.61 0.05 (−0.18, 0.27) 3.48 0.24 (0.07, 0.41) 2.40 0.66 (0.43, 1.01) 42.4
 50–64 −0.25 (−0.52, 0.03) 2.54 0.19 (−0.03, 0.41) 3.62 0.31 (0.12, 0.51) 2.47 0.31 (0.20, 0.50) 27.1
 ≥ 65 −0.62 (−0.96, –0.27) 2.17 0.29 (−0.02, 0.59) 3.71 0.76 (0.53, 0.99) 2.92 0.28 (0.16, 0.47) 24.9
Education level
 ≤ Some high school Reference*** 2.48 Reference 3.58 Reference 2.46 Reference* 39.9
 High school graduate −0.02 (−0.26, 0.21) 2.45 −0.03 (−0.24, 0.17) 3.55 −0.13 (−0.29, 0.04) 2.33 1.27 (0.87, 1.85) 45.1
 Some college 0.31 (0.08, 0.54) 2.79 −0.14 (−0.35, 0.08) 3.44 −0.16 (−0.33, 0.01) 2.30 1.48 (1.01, 2.17) 48.6
 College graduate 0.67 (0.36, 0.97) 3.15 −0.09 (−0.31, 0.12) 3.49 −0.11 (−0.34, 0.12) 2.35 0.89 (0.56, 1.41) 37.4
Health insurance
 Private Reference*** 2.86 Reference 3.52 Reference 2.38 Reference 47.2
 Public −0.26 (−0.49 2.60 0.01 (−0.19, 0.20) 3.52 0.05 (−0.11, 0.21) 2.43 0.78 (0.53, 1.15) 41.7
 None −0.42 (−0.62 2.44 0.01 (−0.18, 0.19) 3.52 −0.07 (−0.22, 0.07) 2.31 0.68 (0.49, 0.93) 38.7
Skin reaction after 1 hour in the sun
 Mild sunburn Reference*** 2.54 Reference*** 3.41 Reference*** 2.28 Reference** 38.5
 Moderate sunburn 0.16 (−0.01, 0.32) 2.70 0.12 (−0.04, 0.28) 3.53 0.09 (−0.02, 0.21) 2.37 1.55 (1.16, 2.07) 48.1
 Severe sunburn 0.60 (0.30, 0.90) 3.14 0.57 (0.33, 0.81) 3.99 0.49 (0.28, 0.71) 2.77 1.47 (0.94, 2.31) 46.9
Risk for occupational sun exposure
 Low Reference 2.65 Reference* 3.55 Reference*** 2.29 Reference 43.0
 High 0.10 (−0.18, 0.37) 2.75 −0.27 (−0.50, –0.05) 3.28 0.60 (0.42, 0.78) 2.89 1.15 (0.73, 1.81) 46.0

Note. b = unstandardized regression coefficient; CI = confidence interval; Adj. = adjusted; AOR = adjusted odds ratio. Sunscreen use, staying in the shade, and use of sun protective clothing were each measured on a 5-point scale (1 = never, 2 = rarely, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the time, 5 = all of the time). Ns from 1578 to 1616 Hispanic adults drawn from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Data Source: National Center for Health Statistics, 2010 National Health Interview Survey [23].

aAdjusted means are least squares means obtained from a multiple linear regression analysis. bAdjusted rates of having a sunburn in the past year (%) are predicted marginals obtained from the multiple logistic regression analysis.

*p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001, for the association between the correlate and the sun protection behavior (based on a Satterthwaite adjusted F test).

Coups et al.

Coups et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:985   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-985

Open Data