Table 7

Reported direct, indirect and total costs
Author(s) year Country Cost estimate (I$) % Annual per-capita income (entire population) % Annual per-capita income (income-poorest 20% of the population) Notes
Direct costs
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 11 2 13 Total direct costs including medical and non-medical costs (IQR I$6- I$17)
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 17 8 17 Direct patient costs under community-based DOTS (sd I$12)
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 49 24 51 Direct patient costs under health facility-based DOTS (sd I$44)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 39 21 83a Mean total direct costs for smear-positive patients (median I$19)
Kemp, et al. [54] Malawi 74 40 156a Mean total direct costs for smear-negative patients (median I$38)
Mesfin, et al. [55] Ethiopia 114 60 129 Mean total direct costs (median I$61; IQR I$26- I$132)
Needham, et al. [57] Zambia 64 16 73 Total mean direct costs
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 14 3 20 Total mean direct medical costs (median I$5)
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 31 8 45 Total mean direct non-medical costs (median I$14)
Vassall, et al. [65] Ethiopia 527 277 595 Total mean direct pretreatment costs including transport and non-transport costs for (median I$66)
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 59 17 33b Total direct costs under a health facility-based DOTS strategy
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 13 4 8b Total direct costs under a community-based DOTS strategy
Indirect Costs
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 21 5 25 Median total indirect costs (IQR I$11- I$39)
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 18 9 18 Mean indirect cost under community-based DOTS
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 48 50 24 Mean indirect cost under health facility-based DOTS
Mesfin, et al. [55] Ethiopia 145 76 164 Average indirect costs from first consultation to diagnosis including income lost and travel time cost (median I$44; IQR I$15- I$101)
Mesfin, et al. [55] Ethiopia 54 28 60 Average indirect costs prior to diagnosis (median I$26.) including income last and travel time cost
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 99 25 145 Total lost income (median I$37)
Vassall, et al. [65] Ethiopia 44 23 50 Total mean indirect pretreatment costs (median I$0)
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 56 16 32b Total indirect costs under a health facility-based DOTS strategy
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 19 5 11b Total indirect costs under a community-based DOTS strategy
Total Costs
Aspler, et al. [41] Zambia 34 7 41 Total median costs per patients (IQR I$19-I$56) in which direct and indirect costs comprised 34% and 62%, respecitvely
Chard, S. [46] Uganda 25 8 27c Total reported costs for biomedical treatment
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 34 17 36d Total patient costs under community-based DOTS (sd I$16)
Datiko and Lindtjorn [48] Ethiopia 99 48 104d Total patient costs under health facility-based DOTS (sd I$50)
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 155 4 23e Total cost to patients under DOTS
Floyd, et al. [51] South Africa 461 12 67e Total cost to patients under the conventional systemf
Gibson and Boillot [52] Sierra Leone 26 10 33g Total cost for patients under the National Leprosy and TB Control Program
Mesfin, et al. [55] Ethiopia 259 136 292 Mean total costs (median I$119; IQR I$53- I$242)
Needham, et al. [58] Zambia 68 17 100 Total patient costs (median I$32)
Saunderson, P.R. [31] Uganda 584 249 809 Total cost under the strategy that utilizes hospitalization for the first two months of treatment followed by an outpatient continuation phase for 4–10 months.
Sinanovic and Kumaranayake [64] South Africa 102 3 17h Total cost per patient attending a public-non-governmental organization partnership site (95% CI I$73- I$123)
Sinanovic and Kumaranayake [64] South Africa 95 2 16h Total cost per patient attending a public-non-governmental organization partnership site (95% CI I$82- 104)
Sinanovic and Kumaranayake [64] South Africa 264 7 44h Total cost per patient attending a public hospital (95% CI I$251- I$274)
Sinanovic and Kumaranayake [64] South Africa 317 8 53h Total cost per patient attending a public hospital (95% CI I$293- I$363)
Sinanovic, et al. [63] South Africa 2 0.044 0.24i Total cost for a clinic DOTS visit, where clinic used for DOTS and total cost for monitoring/collection of drugs in Nyanga (95% CI I$1- I$2)
Sinanovic, et al. [63] South Africa 2 0.041 0.23i Total cost for a clinic DOTS visit, where clinic used for DOTS and total cost for monitoring/collection of drugs in Guguletu (95% CI I$1- I$2)
Sinanovic, et al. [63] South Africa 1 0.01 0.08i Total cost for a DOTS visit, where community treatment supporter u used for in Guguletu (95% CI I$1- I$2)
Vassall, et al. [65] Ethiopia 567 298 639 Total mean pretreatment costs
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 116 32 65b Total costs under a health facility-based DOTS strategy
Wandwalo, et al. [66] Tanzania 32 9 18b Total costs under a community-based DOTS strategy
Wilkinson, et al. [67] South Africa 183 5 27j Total costs for patients treated under community-based DOTS strategy.

a Income share based on 1998 estimates instead of 2000; b Income share based on 2000 estimates instead of 2005; c Income share based on 1999 estimates instead of 1998; d Income share based on 2005 estimates instead of 2006; e Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1996; f The conventional system hospitalizes patients for the first two months of treatment; g Income share assumed to be 6% by authors in absence of World Bank data; h Income share based on 2000 estimates instead of 2001; i Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1997; j Income share based on 1995 estimates instead of 1996; k Income share based on 2000 estimates instead of 1996.

Barter et al.

Barter et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:980   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-980

Open Data