Table 2

Gender gap differences in external cause mortality with Cluster 2004 as main predictor
Base model Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Time trend terms
Linear 9.79 (2.00) 9.76 (2.01) 18.86 (2.73) 18.87 (2.75) 16.36 (3.03)
Quadratic −10.76 (1.08) −10.72 (1.08) −7.39 (1.30) −7.38 (1.31) −9.55 (1.39)
Cubic −18.81 (4.15) −18.67 (4.15) −14.81 (4.38) −14.79 (4.38) −18.19 (4.66)
Time-varying factors
GDP/1000 dollars −0.32 (0.07) −0.32 (0.07) −0.25 (0.07)
Alcohol consumption −0.21 (0.14)
Time invariant factors
Intercept (constant) 59.75 (1.27) 62.32 (1.70) 56.41 (9.13) 56.27 (14.52) 58.04 (15.51)
Universal citizen −1.81 (3.66) −2.25 (3.08) −2.27 (3.27) −2.66 (3.41)
Compensatory breadwinner −2.82 (2.60) −1.86 (2.21) −1.87 (2.23) −2.63 (2.35)
Earner-carer −6.49 (2.45) −3.43 (2.70) −3.44 (2.93) −4.20 (3.12)
Gini 2005 (0–10) 3.43 (2.75) 3.44 (2.90) 3.19 (3.06)
GEM04 (0–10) 0.01 (1.21) 0.06 (1.26)
Random part
Variance (constant) 35.05 (10.62) 31.99 (9.69) 26.73 (8.11) 26.72 (8.10) 26.21 (7.95)
Covariance (linear/constant) −23.59 (12.39) −28.98 (12.46) −29.82 (11.57) −29.80 (11.57) −28.64 (11.81)
Variance (linear) 78.27 (24.17) 78.32 (24.19) 74.59 (23.09) 74.59 (23.09) 83.27 (25.75)

Reference category is the male breadwinner cluster. Regression estimates with standard errors.

Model 1: + Cluster 2004 Model 2: + Economic factors Model 3: + GEM 2004 Model 4: + Alcohol consumption. Time centred at 1990.

Backhans et al.

Backhans et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:969   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-969

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