Table 5

Summary results of evidence on the relationship environmental factors and leisure-time PA (LTPA)
Environm. variables Positive association Negative association No association A* B* C* D*
Walkability 61 85, 85, 86 3 1/4 25 0
Residential density 34, 34, 55M, 55M,55F, 55F 2 N/A N/A N/A
Land use mix diversity 34 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Street connectivity 34, 34, 85, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Access to shops/services/work 70, 88 34, 34, 67, 67, 70, 70, 70, 77, 77, 85, 85 5 2/13 15 00
Access to public transport 34, 34 1 N/A N/A N/A
Access to recreation facilities 29M, 29F, 40F, 52, 60, 60, 67, 70, 81, 81, 85 60, 60

34, 34, 40M, 40M, 40M,

40M, 40M, 40F, 40F, 40F, 40F, 47, 49, 52, 52, 52, 60, 60, 61, 61, 61, 65M, 65M, 65F, 65F, 70, 70, 70, 73, 73, 73M, 73M, 73F, 73F, 85

14 11/48 23 00
Walking/cycling facilities 34, 34, 34, 34, 85, 85, 85, 85 2 N/A N/A N/A
Safety 49 73, 73M, 73F, 73F 55M, 55M, 55F, 55F, 73, 73M, 85, 85 3 4/13 31 0
Traffic-related safety 34, 34, 55M, 55M, 55F, 55F,70, 70, 85, 85 3 0/10 0 0
Crime-related safety 70, 75 34, 34, 49, 67, 67, 70, 85, 85, 88, 88 6 2/12 17 00
Aesthetics 49, 55F, 73, 73, 73M, 88, 88 29M, 29M, 29M, 29M, 29F, 29F, 29F, 29F, 34, 34, 55M, 55M, 55F, 73M, 73F, 73F, 85, 85, 88 6 7/26 27 00
Urbanization 29M, 40, 81, 89, 89M 27F, 42M, 42F , 66 27M, 29F, 43MI, 43MII, 43FI, 43FII, 67, 70, 70, 84, 84, 89, 89, 89, 89M, 89M, 89M, 89F, 89F, 89F, 89F 10 5/30 17 00
Quality of environment 77M, 77F 29M, 29F,61 3 2/5 40 (+)

* A = n° of independent studies; B = n° of associated records divided by all records; C = % of evidence; D = summary code.

Regular vs italics font = subjective vs objective PA measures; regular vs bold font = subjective vs objective environmental measures.

M = specific results for males; F = specific results for females; I = specific results for 1st measurement period; II = specific results for 2nd measurement period.

Van Holle et al.

Van Holle et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:807   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-807

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