Table 5

Associations between whether helmet was worn and trip or personal characteristics, variables retained in adjusted analysis only, each variable on its own (unadjusted) and in multiple logistic regression (adjusted)
Helmet worn
Yes/No (% Yes/% No)* Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
City
 Vancouver 315/99 (76/24) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Toronto 163/113 (59/41) 0.46 (0.33 – 0.64) 0.38 (0.25 – 0.57)
Bike light turned on during trip
 No 376/179 (68/32) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 102/33 (76/24) 1.45 (0.93 – 2.25) 2.02 (1.17 – 3.50)
Trip distance
 < 2 km 147/102 (59/41) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 2 - < 5 km 158/63 (71/29) 1.63 (1.10 – 2.41) 1.67 (1.05 – 2.65)
 5 - < 10 km 106/32 (77/23) 2.14 (1.34 – 3.44) 1.67 (0.96 – 2.89)
 10 - < 20 km 36/12 (75/25) 1.91 (0.94 – 3.85) 1.47 (0.65 – 3.34)
 ≥ 20 km 31/3 (91/9) 6.75 (2.01 – 22.7) 5.43 (1.42 – 20.8)
Bike type used on trip
 Mountain bike 139/67 (67/23) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 City bike 17/12 (59/41) 0.66 (0.30 – 1.46) 0.82 (0.33 – 2.05)
 Touring/road bike 98/46 (68/32) 1.01 (0.64 – 1.61) 1.11 (0.65 – 1.90)
 Racing bike 50/16 (76/24) 1.45 (0.77 – 2.73) 1.22 (0.58 – 2.58)
 Folding bike 7/5 (58/42) 0.65 (0.19 – 2.12) 0.84 (0.20 – 3.44)
 Hybrid 152/28 (84/16) 2.58 (1.55 – 4.27) 2.08 (1.18 – 3.68)
 Cruiser 6/17 (26/74) 0.17 (0.07 – 0.47) 0.15 (0.05 – 0.46)
 BMX bike 1/6 (14/86) 0.07 (0.01 – 0.66) 0.15 (0.02 – 1.40)
 Fixed gear 8/15 (35/65) 0.25 (0.10 – 0.61) 0.42 (0.16 – 1.16)
Alcohol used in 6 hours prior to trip
 No 442/175 (72/28) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Yes 36/37 (49/51) 0.39 (0.24 – 0.64) 0.42 (0.23 – 0.78)
Sex
 Male 272/138 (66/34) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Female 206/74 (74/26) 1.33 (0.95 – 1.87) 1.62 (1.06 – 2.48)
Age
 19 - 29 160/103 (61/39) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 30 - 39 114/54 (68/32) 1.33 (0.88 – 2.01) 0.98 (0.59 – 1.63)
 40 - 49 90/27 (77/23) 2.14 (1.29 – 3.53) 1.27 (0.67 – 2.40)
 50 - 59 69/14 (83/17) 3.04 (1.62 – 5.68) 2.45 (1.12 – 5.35)
 ≥ 60 44/12 (79/21) 2.24 (1.27 – 4.45) 1.35 (0.58 – 3.17)
Income
 < $15,000 30/36 (45/55) 0.44 (0.24 – 0.81) 0.45 (0.22 – 0.92)
 $15,000 - 29,999 50/33 (60/40) 0.75 (0.42 – 1.33) 0.94 (0.48 – 1.83)
 $30,000 - 49,999 83/37 (69/31) 1.13 (0.66 – 1.92) 1.12 (0.61 – 2.07)
 $50,000 - 79,999 88/45 (69/31) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 $80,000 - 119,999 80/19 (81/19) 2.11 (1.14 – 3.90) 1.67 (0.84 – 3.35)
 ≥ $120,000 97/12 (89/11) 4.00 (1.99 – 8.06) 2.28 (1.03 – 5.07)
 DK/Refuse 50/30 (63/37) 0.89 (0.50 – 1.61) 0.84 (0.42 – 1.71)
Education
 Some high school 7/6 (54/46) 0.43 (0.13 – 1.42) 0.42 (0.11 – 1.70)
 Completed high school 19/21 (48/52) 0.30 (0.15 – 0.59) 0.30 (0.13 – 0.68)
 Some post-secondary  education 71/48 (60/40) 0.47 (0.29 – 0.76) 0.61 (0.35 – 1.06)
 Completed college/ technical diploma 68/57 (54/46) 0.38 (0.24 – 0.61) 0.43 (0.25 – 0.74)
 Completed university degree 190/59 (76/24) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
 Completed graduate degree 123/21 (85/15) 1.80 (1.04 – 3.12) 1.29 (0.70 – 2.40)

Significant associations in bold.

* Row percent.

Teschke et al.

Teschke et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:765   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-765

Open Data