Table 6

Insomnia-related symptoms: associations with socioeconomic factors
Model 1 Adjusted for age and gender Model 2 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children and area Model 3 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status and income Model 4 Adjusted for age, gender, marital status, children, area, education, parental education, employment status, income and self-perceived health
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
PARENTAL EDUCATION
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 0.90 (0.62, 1.32) 0.60 0.90 (0.62, 1.31) 0.59 0.89 (0.60, 1.30) 0.53 0.90 (0.61, 1.33) 0.59
 Low 1.13 (0.84, 1.53) 0.41 1.13 (0.83, 1.52) 0.44 1.06 (0.77, 1.45) 0.72 1.03 (0.75, 1.41) 0.87
 Do not know 0.52 (0.26, 1.06) 0.07 0.52 (0.25, 1.05) 0.07 0.54 (0.26, 1.13) 0.10 0.57 (0.27, 1.18) 0.13
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 High 1 1 1 1
 Intermediate 1.09 (0.68, 1.73) 0.72 1.10 (0.69, 1.75) 0.70 1.00 (0.62, 1.61) 1.00 1.04 (0.63, 1.72) 0.88
 Low 1.07 (0.73, 1.56) 0.73 1.03 (0.70, 1.51) 0.88 0.82 (0.55, 1.24) 0.35 0.80 (0.52, 1.23) 0.31
 Do not know 1.43 (0.77, 2.63) 0.25 1.40 (0.76, 2.61) 0.28 1.01 (0.52, 1.96) 0.97 1.11 (0.52, 2.39) 0.78
Global P-value 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.15
n 5445 5437 5307 5300
OWN EDUCATION
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10-12) 1.06 (0.89, 1.26) 0.54 1.05 (0.88, 1.25) 0.59 0.99 (0.83, 1.18) 0.89 0.94 (0.78, 1.12) 0.47
 low (7–9) 1.15 (0.96, 1.38) 0.12 1.13 (0.94, 1.35) 0.19 1.03 (0.84, 1.24) 0.80 0.92 (0.76, 1.12) 0.42
 very low (< 7) 0.97 (0.73, 1.30) 0.83 0.94 (0.70, 1.25) 0.65 0.78 (0.57, 1.06) 0.11 0.69 (0.50, 0.95) 0.02
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 high (> 12) 1 1 1 1
 medium (10–12) 1.42 (1.12, 1.80) 0.004 1.34 (1.06, 1.71) 0.02 1.27 (0.96, 1.67) 0.09 1.14 (0.86, 1.51) 0.36
 low (7–9) 1.56 (1.22, 1.99) 0.0004 1.48 (1.15, 1.89) 0.002 1.19 (0.89, 1.58) 0.24 0.93 (0.69, 1.26) 0.63
 very low (< 7) 1.26 (0.88, 1.80) 0.20 1.30 (0.89, 1.90) 0.17 1.03 (0.68, 1.56) 0.90 0.75 (0.47, 1.17) 0.20
Global P-value 0.01 0.07 0.33 0.19
n 5560 5550 5307 5300
HOUSEHOLD INCOME LEVEL
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 0.95 (0.79, 1.14) 0.58 1.02 (0.84, 1.24) 0.82 1.02 (0.84, 1.23) 0.83 0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 0.92
 2nd 1.22 (1.02, 1.47) 0.03 1.33 (1.10, 1.61) 0.004 1.28 (1.05, 1.56) 0.01 1.21 (0.98, 1.48) 0.07
 lowest income quartile 1.27 (1.04, 1.54) 0.02 1.36 (1.11, 1.66) 0.003 1.27 (1.02, 1.58) 0.03 1.18 (0.95, 1.47) 0.13
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 Highest income quartile 1 1 1 1
 3rd 1.03 (0.80, 1.33) 0.83 1.23 (0.93, 1.62) 0.15 1.03 (0.77, 1.38) 0.83 1.01 (0.75, 1.36) 0.96
 2nd 1.48 (1.16, 1.88) 0.002 1.77 (1.37, 2.28) <0.0001 1.33 (1.00, 1.77) 0.05 1.19 (0.88, 1.59) 0.25
 lowest income quartile 1.89 (1.46, 2.45) <0.0001 2.32 (1.77, 3.04) <0.0001 1.54 (1.13, 2.09) 0.006 1.35 (0.98, 1.86) 0.06
Global P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 0.006 0.15
n 5453 5453 5307 5300
EMPLOYMENT STATUS
Occasional symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 1.49 (1.17, 1.91) 0.001 1.44 (1.13, 1.83) 0.004 1.25 (0.96, 1.62) 0.10 1.16 (0.89, 1.52) 0.27
 Disability pension 1.34 (1.00, 1.79) 0.05 1.29 (0.96, 1.73) 0.09 1.19 (0.88, 1.61) 0.26 0.96 (0.71, 1.30) 0.80
 Old age retirement 0.97 (0.73, 1.28) 0.81 0.93 (0.70, 1.24) 0.62 0.84 (0.62, 1.13) 0.24 0.86 (0.64, 1.16) 0.32
 Other pension 0.99 (0.65, 1.49) 0.94 0.93 (0.61, 1.41) 0.72 0.82 (0.53, 1.28) 0.39 0.83 (0.54, 1.28) 0.39
 Other 1.54 (1.07, 2.20) 0.02 1.58 (1.09, 2.29) 0.02 1.32 (0.89, 1.95) 0.16 1.31 (0.89, 1.93) 0.17
Frequent symptoms vs. Good sleepers
 Working 1 1 1 1
 Unemployed 3.19 (2.42, 4.21) <0.0001 3.02 (2.29, 3.98) <0.0001 2.48 (1.81, 3.38) <0.0001 2.00 (1.45, 2.76) <0.0001
 Disability pension 3.30 (2.34, 4.67) <0.0001 3.36 (2.38, 4.73) <0.0001 2.88 (1.99, 4.17) <0.0001 1.69 (1.14, 2.50) 0.009
 Old age retirement 1.15 (0.79, 1.69) 0.46 1.31 (0.89, 1.93) 0.17 1.17 (0.78, 1.74) 0.45 1.12 (0.74, 1.68) 0.59
 Other pension 1.40 (0.82, 2.39) 0.22 1.44 (0.85, 2.45) 0.18 1.30 (0.74, 2.28) 0.36 1.26 (0.71, 2.23) 0.43
 Other 1.69 (1.04, 2.75) 0.03 2.10 (1.29, 3.42) 0.003 1.61 (0.94, 2.76) 0.08 1.47 (0.87, 2.49) 0.15
Global P-value <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.0004
n 5578 5568 5307 5300

Lallukka et al.

Lallukka et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:565   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-565

Open Data