Table 2

An ecological perspective: levels of influence
Levels Definition
Intrapersonal Level Individual characteristics that influence behavior, such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personality traits
Interpersonal Level Interpersonal processes and primary groups, including family, friends, and peers that provide social identity, support, and role definition
Community Level
Institutional Factors Rules, regulations, policies, and informal structures, which may constrain or promote recommended behaviors
Community Factors Social networks and norms, or standards, which exist as formal or informal among individuals, groups, and organizations
Public Policy Local, state, and federal policies and laws that regulate or support healthy actions and practices for disease prevention, early detection, control, and management

Source: National Cancer Institute. Theory at a glance. Available at webcite (Cited May 13, 2011).

Tarimo et al.

Tarimo et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:529   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-529

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