Table 3

Univariate and multivariate (adjusted) analysis of the variable ‘ever refused condom’ using survey logistic regression
Predictor variable Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
1. Residence Type
Formal Urban 1 1
Informal Urban 0.75 (0.50-1.12) 0.77 (0.48-1.25)
Rural 0.90 (0.57-1.42) 0.83 (0.46-1.49)
2. Gender
Male 1 1
Female 0.94 (0.75-1.16) 0.97 (0.69-1.36)
3. Age 1.02 (1.01-1.04)* 1.02 (1.00-1.03)
4. Marital status
Unmarried 1 1
Married/Living together 1.05 (0.81-1.37) 0.94 (0.67-1.32)
Divorced/Widowed 1.96 (1.41-2.27)** 1.50 (0.95-2.37)
5. Employment
None 1 1
Student 0.88 (0.67-1.15) 1.05 (0.70-1.57)
Temporary employment 0.89 (0.68-1.18) 0.82 (0.59-1.13)
Permanent employment 0.73 (0.58-0.93) 0.67 (0.48-0.94)*
6. Education
None/Below grade 12 1 1
Passed Grade 12 0.90 (0.64-2.28) 1.25 (0.78-2.01)
Degree/diploma 0.45 (0.27-0.76)* 0.50 (0.25-1.00)
7. Knowledge about HIV
Inadequate 1 1
Adequate 0.60 (0.46-0.79)** 0.83 (0.63-1.10)
8. Knowledge about Condoms
Inadequate 1 1
Adequate 0.45 (0.32-0.63)** 0.58 (0.38-0.87)*
9. Knowledge about correct use of condom
No 1 1
Yes 0.35 (0.25-0.48)** 0.63 (0.46-0.88)*
10. Knowledge about own HIV status
No 1 1
Yes 0.74 (0.61-0.91)* 0.85 (0.66-1.08)
11. Knowledge about HIV status of Partner
No 1 1
Yes 0.77 (0.63-0.94)* 1.09 (0.84-1.42)
12. Belief that condoms can prevent HIV transmission
No 1 1
Yes 0.34 (0.21-0.53)** 0.64 (0.38-1.08)
13. Perceived need for condoms
No 1 1
Yes 0.25 (0.18-0.36)** 0.34 (0.23-0.49)**
14. Condom stigma
No 1 1
Yes 2.56 (1.88-3.48)** 1.89 (1.37-2.59)**
15. Availability of condoms
No 1 1
Yes 0.59 (0.36-0.95)* 0.91 (0.55-1.52)
16. Affordability of condoms
No 1 1
Yes 0.84 (0.60-1.18) 1.54 (1.18-2.02)**
17. Sexual risk behaviour
No 1 1
Yes 1.14 (0.93-1.39) 1.32 (1.08-1.62)*

***p < .01, **p < .05, *p < .10.

Chandran et al.

Chandran et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:381   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-381

Open Data