Table 4

Odds of SGA by census dissemination area average income with and without adjustment for maternal risk factors
Model 1 Model 2
Independent variables n OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Average income quintile
 1 ($6,196–$24,444) 11444 Reference Reference
 2 ($24,444–$28,440) 11510 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)* 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)
 3 ($28,440–$32,954) 11953 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)*** 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)
 4 ($32,986–$38,832) 12163 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)*** 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)***
 5 ($38,837–$509,269) 11969 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)*** 0.8 (0.7, 0.8)***
Smoking during pregnancy
 No 55561 Reference
 Yes 3478 1.6 (1.4, 1.8)***
Maternal age
 <20 927 0.8 (0.6, 1.0)*
 20–35 42675 Reference
 ≥ 35 15437 1.0 (0.9, 1.1)
Parity
 0 29296 Reference
 ≥ 1 29543 0.5 (0.5, 0.6)***
Pre-pregnancy BMI
 Underweight (<18.5) 4098 1.8 (1.6, 2.0)***
 Normal weight (18.5–25) 37718 Reference
 Overweight (25–30) 11494 0.7 (0.7, 0.8)***
 Obese (≥30) 5729 0.6 (0.5, 0.6)***
Height (continuous, cm) 59039 0.9 (0.9, 0.9)***
Diabetes/ Hypertension
 Neither 50163 Reference
 Diabetes only 5615 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)
 Hypertension only 2653 2.4 (2.1, 2.7)***
 Diabetes & hypertension 608 1.5 (1.1, 2.0)*
Oligohydramnios
 No 57656 Reference
 Yes 1383 3.9 (3.4, 4.4)***
Placenta disorder
 No 57788 Reference
 Yes 1251 1.4 (1.2, 1.7)**

* 2-sided p < 0.05; ** 2-sided p < 0.001; *** 2-sided p < 0.0001.

Hayward et al.

Hayward et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:333   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-333

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