Table 2

Comparison of psychosocial, socioedmographic and behavioral factors in participants not living alone versus those living alone

n (%)


Characteristic

Not living alone

Living alone

All

P for alone

(n = 2967)

(n = 504)

(n = 3471)

vs. not alone


Psychosocial factors:a

Poor job climate

1016 (34.3)

210 (42.0)

1226 (35.3)

0.002

Lack of support at the workplace

999 (33.8)

170 (34.0)

1169 (33.7)

0.923

Lack of social support in private life

984 (33.3)

242 (48.2)

1226 (35.3)

< 0.001

High cynical hostility

760 (25.8)

161 (32.3)

921 (26.5)

0.004

Sociodemographic factors:

Low occupational grade (blue-collar)

996 (34.1)

188 (38.1)

1184 (34.1)

0.089

Lack of secondary education

648 (22.2)

123 (24.7)

771 (22.2)

0.238

Low income (< 50% of national median)

338 (11.2)

57 (11.3)

395 (11.4)

0.940

Temporarily outside working lifeb

238 (7.8)

54 (10.5)

292 (8.4)

0.060

Urban residency

1873 (63.3)

378 (74.8)

2251 (64.9)

< 0.001

Living at rent

560 (18.7)

221 (43.4)

781 (22.5)

< 0.001

Poor housing conditionsc

272 (9.1)

65 (12.7)

337 (9.7)

0.029

Health behaviors:

Daily smokers

716 (24.3)

154 (30.7)

870 (25.1)

0.002

Heavy alcohol used

302 (10.4)

74 (15.0)

376 (10.8)

0.005

Infrequent physical activitye

635 (21.3)

125 (24.6)

760 (21.9)

0.107

Obesity (BMI ≥ 30)

554 (18.9)

96 (18.9)

650 (18.7)

0.990


The Health 2000 Study, n = 3471

aThe highest tertile is the cut-off point

bUnemployed, home-maker, full-time student, or retired during past 12 months

cAt least 2 of the following: draft, noise, dust or dirt, dampness, chilliness, crowding, fear

dAccording to WHO definintion: > 20 g for women per day, > 40 g for men per day

eLess than 4 times per week of any activity, including moderate activity such as walking

Pulkki-Råback et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:236   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-236

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