Table 5

Nutritional and health outcomes associated with fruit and vegetable subsidy programs
First Author, Year Intervention, Participants Nutritional outcomes Health outcomes
Burr 2007[37] Dietary intake
Net % consuming more fruit
Free home-delivered orange juice using vouchers(V) nutritional advice promoting fruit and fruit juice (A) or standard care during prenatal care period (C) Mean V A C
Apples 2.2 −13.2 −2.7
Oranges −2.2 −21.1 −11.8
Bananas −17.4 −7.9 −29.7
Fruit juice 34.8* −7.9 −24.3
*Voucher group net % significantly greater than advice or control (p<0.05)
Pregnant women Biomarkers
Mean (SD)
β-carotene change, ng/ml
V A C p
n=39 n=37 n=42
35.6(77.2) −20.2(43.3) <0.0001
2.7(65.5) −20.2(43.3) 0.435
Herman 2006 & 2008[32,40] Dietary intake
Standard WIC program plus $10 voucher weekly for F&V from local supermarket (SM) or farmer′s market (FM) Mean SM FM C p
F&V intake,
serves/4186kJ/day
End of intervention 4.1 3.9 3.0 F=9.75, p<0.001
Post-partum women >18yo- all WIC participants 6 mths post-intervention 4.0 4.0 3.1 F=6.66, p=0.001
Vegetable intake, serves/4186kJ/day
End of intervention 2.3 2.1 1.5 F=11.0, p<0.001
6 mths post-intervention Data not shown F=−0.59, p=0.02
Fruit intake
Data not shown, no significant differences between SM, FM and control
Kennedy 2009[41] Dietary intake Anthropometric and cardiovascular outcomes
Change in intake at six months Change at six months
Free fruit and vegetables $10/week with recipes from mobile store at community centre with monthly nutrition/cooking sessions and anthropometric assessment Mean (SD) I C p Mean (SD) I C p
Energy, kcal/day −456 (1032) −636 (1326) 0.48 Weight, kg −2.0 (3.2) 1.1 (2.0) <0.001
Fiber, g/day 1.7 (5.7) −4.3 (19.7) 0.03
African-American women Fruit, serves/day 1.0 (1.7) 0 (1.2) 0.02
Veg, serves/day 0.9 (1.2) −0.2 (1.8) 0.002 BMI, kg/m [2] −0.7 (1.2) 0.4 (0.8) 0.001
Waist size, cm −0.5 (5.3) 1.9 (3.7) 0.12
Syst BP, mmHg −2.3 (13.0) −1.4 (12.3) 0.14
Dias BP, mmHg 0.8 (8.1) 0.1 (9.3) 0.68
Self-rated health
General health and quality of life were rated across multiple domains. Trends generally favoured intervention group, but only self-esteem (p=0.03) and emotional role (p=0.04) improved significantly

Black et al.

Black et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1099   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1099

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