Table 1

Hazard ratios (HR’s) for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality by childhood socioeconomic conditionsa (adjusted for age)b, and HR’s for CVD mortality by adulthood risk factors (adjusted for age, childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood SEPc)b, for men and women
Men (n=5395) Women (n=6306)
HR (95% CI) for CVD mortality p HR (95% CI) for CVD mortality p
Childhood socioeconomic conditionsb
Occupation of respondent’s father (professional = 1.00) .021 .010
  white collar 1.09 (0.78-1.51) 1.00 (0.66-1.44)
  blue collar 1.34 (1.01-1.77) 1.10 (0.78-1.53)
Material conditions
House renter (home owner = 1.00) 1.31 (1.08-1.59) .016 1.35 (1.07-1.69) .022
No car (car = 1.00) 1.37 (1.10-1.72) .018 1.27 (1.01-1.59) .100
Public health insurance (private = 1.00) 1.19 (0.97-1.48) .194 1.17 (0.93-1.47) .382
Financial problemsa (no = 1.00)
  Some financial problems 1.08 (0.86-1.37) .023 1.31 (1.02-1.68) .013
  Many financial problems 1.74 (1.11-2.72) 1.82 (1.18-2.80)
Problems with neighbourhood conditions (no=1.00) 0.94 (0.78-1.14) .816 1.02 (0.81-1.28) .980
Problems with housing conditions (no=1.00) 1.02 (0.82-1.28) .979 1.13 (0.88-1.44) .592
Health-behaviours
Smoking (never = 1.00)
  former 0.97 (0.69-1.36) .000 0.80 (0.61-1.06) .000
  current 1.85 (1.33-2.57) 1.87 (1.48-2.37)
Physical activity (active = 1.00)
  moderately active 1.16 (0.94-1.42) .001 1.31 (1.01-1.70) .000
  little active 1.52 (1.17-1.97) 1.40 (1.03-1.90)
  inactive 1.71 (1.30-2.26) 2.09 (1.57-2.79)
Alcohol consumption (light = 1.00)
  abstainer 1.12 (0.88-1.44) .247 1.80 (1.39-2.34) .000
  moderate drinker 0.98 (0.78-1.24) 1.22 (0.81-1.84)
  heavy drinker 1.36 (1.02-1.82) 2.01 (1.27-3.18)
BMI (normal (20-25) =1.00)
  underweight (<20) 0.47 (0.21-1.05) .063 1.93 (1.28-2.91) .000
  overweight (25.01-30) 1.09 (0.91-1.32) 0.92 (0.72-1.17)
  obese (>30) 1.39 (0.94-2.07) 1.66 (1.22-2.27)
Psychosocial factors
Negative life events (no = 1.00)
  1
    >
negative life events
1.10 (0.91-1.34) .743 0.98 (0.77-1.25) .234
  2
    >
negative life events
0.98 (0.76-1.26) 1.30 (0.99-1.72)
Marital status (married =1.00)
  single 1.51 (1.03-2.21) .050 1.31 (0.88-1.95) .002
  divorced 1.45 (1.02-2.07) 1.46 (0.95-2.26)
  widowed 1.20 (0.82-1.75) 1.51 (1.18-1.93)
Use of sleep/anxiety drugs (no= 1.00) 1.51(1.10-2.08) .038 0.98 (0.72-1.33) .984
Depression, nervousness (no=1.00) 1.20 (0.91-1.60) .427 1.34 (1.00-1.78) .090

SEP, socioeconomic position; CVD, cardiovascular diseases; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index (kg/m2).

a Childhood socioeconomic conditions were determined by the occupation of the respondent’s father when the respondent was 12 years of age, with 1=professional, 2=white collar, 3=blue collar.

b As shown in Figure 1, age, adulthood SEP, and childhood SEP are confounders in the associations of adulthood risk factors with CVD mortality. For the association of childhood socioeconomic conditions with CVD mortality, age is the only confounder.

c Adulthood socioeconomic position was determined by the respondent’s highest attained educational level, with 1= primary, 2= lower secondary, 3= higher secondary, 4=tertiary.

d For childhood socioeconomic conditions as well as all adulthood risk factors, missing values were retained in the analyses as a separate category. For childhood socioeconomic conditions, we reported the HR for the category of missing values in the table, since the proportion of missing values was high, i.e. 12.1% for men and 13.8% for women. For adulthood risk factors, the proportion of missing values was generally low (see Additional file 1), i.e. ranging from 0.1% for physical activity to 5.7% for alcohol consumption among men, and from 0.5% for physical activity to 7.8% for alcohol consumption among women.

Kamphuis et al.

Kamphuis et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1045   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1045

Open Data