Table 4

Baseline for intervention and control patients: self-management behavior, self-efficacy and health status
Variable Mean ± SD P-valuea
Intervention (n = 119) Control (n = 89)
Self-management behavior
  Aerobic exercise (minutes/week) 153.78 ± 154.93 129.10 ± 125.98 0.48
  Eating fatty foods (grams per day) 179.54±130.50 177.18 ±133.05 0.12
  Eating fruits (pieces per day) 0.83 ± 0.61 0.78 ± 0.73 0.17
  Eating vegetables (grams per day) 221.40 ± 117.82 210.67 ± 138.57 0.38
  Cognitive symptom managementb 0.78 ± 0.81 0.95 ± 0.88 0.14
  Communication with medical doctorb 1.90 ± 1.24 1.69 ± 0.97 0.40
  Examining feet (times per week) 1.05 ± 1.93 1.09 ± 2.22 0.21
Self-efficacy to manage diabetesc 8.03 ± 1.95 8.10 ± 1.88 0.89
Health status
  Self-rated healthd 3.69 ± 0.71 3.78 ± 0.54 0.54
  Energyb 2.61 ± 0.94 2.62 ± 0.81 0.73
  Health distresse 0.96 ± 1.03 0.90 ± 0.93 0.95
  Fatiguef 2.79 ± 2.16 3.43 ± 1.86 0.01
  Illness intrusivenessg 25.34 ± 12.76 30.60 ± 16.37 0.03
  Depressionh 6.87 ± 4.52 7.60 ± 4.64 0.40
  BMI 23.96 ± 3.28 23.72 ± 3.01 0.59
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129.90 ± 11.39 128.83 ± 11.74 0.51
  Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78.49 ± 7.03 77.97 ± 6.31 0.96

a Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare baseline variables between intervention and control groups (two-tailed P-values).

b 0–5 increase = improvement.

c 1–10 increase = improvement.

d 1–5 decrease = improvement.

e 0–5 decrease = improvement.

f 0–10 decrease = improvement.

g 13–91 decrease = improvement.

h 0–30 decrease = improvement.

Liu et al.

Liu et al. BMC Public Health 2012 12:1043   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1043

Open Data