Open Access Open Badges Research article

Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010)

Dorota Kaleta1*, Przemysław Korytkowski2, Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska34, Bukola Usidame5, Leokadia Bąk-Romaniszyn6 and Adam Fronczak7

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

2 Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland

3 Department of Work Physiology and Ergonomics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland

4 Public Health Faculty, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

5 Department of Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA

6 Department of Nutrition in Digestive Tract Diseases, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

7 Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Public Health 2012, 12:1020  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-1020

Published: 22 November 2012



Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview) among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers.


Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking.


Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p < 0.01). Former smokers declared concerns about the health hazard of smoking (60.8%) and the high price of cigarettes (11.6%) as primary reasons for smoking cessation. Older age, high education attainment, awareness of smoking health consequences was associated with long-term quitting among both genders. Also employed males had over twice the probability of giving up smoking compared with unemployed, and being religious did not contribute to successful smoking cessation.


Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

Tobacco smoking cessation; Socio-demographic factors; Adults; GATS; Poland