Table 2

Repeated measures regression of GHQ by housing variables in the Whitehall II study, adjusted for potential confounders

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3


Predicted GHQ

54.45**

53.92**

56.36**

Age (years)

-0.12**

-0.13**

-0.18**

Housing tenure

Owner-occupier

ref.

ref.

ref.

Rented housing

0.71**

0.25

-0.10

Housing tenure*age

0.09**

0.06*

0.02

Predicted GHQ

54.53**

53.92**

56.36**

Age (years)

-0.12**

-0.13**

-0.18**

Difficulty paying bills

Slight to no problems

ref.

ref.

ref.

Some to great problems

4.07**

3.54**

3.47**

Bill difficulty*age

0.12**

0.12**

0.09**

Predicted GHQ

54.45**

53.92**

56.36**

Age (years)

-0.11**

-0.13**

-0.18**

Problems with house

Slight to no problems

ref.

ref.

ref.

Some to great problems

3.31**

2.90**

2.98**

House problems*age

0.04**

0.04**

0.04*


Model 1: Multiple regression model with GHQ (repeated measures) as outcome and age, gender, period, housing variables (separately) and interaction of each housing variable (separately) with age as explanatory variables; random effect of age specified.

Model 2: includes Model 1 and all housing variables together and their interactions with age

Model 3: includes Model 2 and grade and retired status and their interactions with age

* p < 0.05

** p < 0.01

Howden-Chapman et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:682   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-682

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