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Open Access Research article

Increase in EPI vaccines coverage after implementation of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infant with Sulfadoxine -pyrimethamine in the district of Kolokani, Mali: Results from a cluster randomized control trial

Alassane Dicko12*, Sidy O Toure1, Mariam Traore1, Issaka Sagara1, Ousmane B Toure1, Mahamadou S Sissoko1, Alpha T Diallo3, Christophe Rogier4, Roger Salomon5, Alexandra de Sousa6 and Ogobara K Doumbo1

Author Affiliations

1 Malaria Research and Training Center, Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine Pharmacy and Dentistry, University of Bamako, P.O. Box 1805 Bamako, Mali

2 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine Pharmacy and Dentistry, University of Bamako, P.O. Box 1805 Bamako, Mali

3 UNICEF Mali, BP: 96, Bamako, Mali

4 Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées IRBA - ex-IMTSSA & UMR6236-URMITE, Allée du Médecin colonel Jamot, Parc du Pharo, BP60109, 13262 Marseille cedex 07, France

5 Institut de Santé Publique, d'Épidémiologie et de Développement, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Case 11 146 Rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex - France

6 Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 121 Geneva 27, Switzerland

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BMC Public Health 2011, 11:573  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-573

Published: 18 July 2011

Abstract

Background

Even though the efficacy of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi) with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) against clinical disease and the absence of its interaction with routine vaccines of the Expanded Immunization Programme (EPI) have been established, there are still some concerns regarding the addition of IPTi, which may increase the work burden and disrupt the routine EPI services especially in Africa where the target immunization coverage remains to be met. However IPTi may also increase the adherence of the community to EPI services and improve EPI coverage, once the benefice of strategy is perceived.

Methods

To assess the impact of IPTi implementation on the coverage of EPI vaccines, 22 health areas of the district of Kolokani were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to either receive IPTi-SP or to serve as a control. The EPI vaccines coverage was assessed using cross-sectional surveys at baseline in November 2006 and after one year of IPTi pilot-implementation in December 2007.

Results

At baseline, the proportion of children of 9-23 months who were completely vaccinated (defined as children who received BGG, 3 doses of DTP/Polio, measles and yellow fever vaccines) was 36.7% (95% CI 25.3% -48.0%). After one year of implementation of IPTi-SP using routine health services, the proportion of children completely vaccinated rose to 53.8% in the non intervention zone and 69.5% in the IPTi intervention zone (P <0.001).

The proportion of children in the target age groups who received IPTi with each of the 3 vaccinations DTP2, DTP3 and Measles, were 89.2% (95% CI 85.9%-92.0%), 91.0% (95% CI 87.6% -93.7%) and 77.4% (95% CI 70.7%-83.2%) respectively. The corresponding figures in non intervention zone were 2.3% (95% CI 0.9% -4.7%), 2.6% (95% CI 1.0% -5.6%) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.4% - 4.9%).

Conclusion

This study shows that high coverage of the IPTi can be obtained when the strategy is implemented using routine health services and implementation results in a significant increase in coverage of EPI vaccines in the district of Kolokani, Mali.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00766662

Keywords:
malaria; intermittent preventive treatment; sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine; expanded program of immunization