Table 2

Distribution of neighborhood characteristicsa, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, Wave III (2001-2), n = 13,150

Non-urban

Low density urban

High density urban


N = 3,662

N = 6,140

N = 3,348


Fast food availability measure


Chain fast food restaurant within 3 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

0.6 (0.1)

1.4 (0.1)

2.2 (0.1)


Percent of respondents with count ≥1

27.8 (22.8,33.5)

79.0 (75.4,82.2)

98.6 (97.7,99.2)


Alternate measures


Chain fast food restaurant within 3 km Euclidean buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

0.8 (0.1)

2.3 (0.1)

3.2 (0.2)


Count per 10,000 population

1.4 (0.1)

1.8 (0.1)

1.5 (0.1)


Percent of respondents with count ≥1

34.2 (28.1,40.8)

89.0 (86.5,91.1)

100.0 (99.9,100.0)


Chain fast food restaurant within 1 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

0.5 (0.1)

1.3 (0.1)

1.9 (0.2)


Percent of respondents with count ≥1

8.7 (6.2,12.0)

24.6 (22.5,26.8)

44.6 (38.9,50.4)


Chain + non-chain d fast food restaurant within 3 km network buffer around each individual residence


Count per 100 km secondary and local road

2.3 (0.2)

5.6 (0.2)

10.1 (1.1)


Percent of respondents with count ≥1

48.3 (42.6,54.0)

93.9 (92.3,95.2)

99.9 (99.2,100.0)


Neighborhood demographics


Percent with college education or greater

16.8 (0.8)

25.8 (1.1)

22.6 (1.8)


Population density within 3 km Euclidean buffer around individual residence

155.6 (12.9)

1,206.2 (75.5)

3,612.2 (556.3)


Population > 20% are below 100FPL

31.2 (24.1,39.3)

20.9 (18.2,23.9)

36.4 (29.2,44.2)


Region


West

7.8 (4.6,13.0)

18.6 (15.0,22.8)

12.9 (6.6,23.6)


Midwest

28.2 (19.7,38.6)

30.0 (23.6,37.3)

39.1 (27.8,51.6)


South

55.8 (46.4,64.8)

33.4 (28.1,39.2)

23.5 (14.1,36.6)


a, b Means (SD)c presented for continuous variables and percentage (95% CI)c presented for categorical variablesc.

a Weighted for national representation, standard deviations corrected for survey design effects of multiple stage cluster sampling.

b Non-urban: distance to Urbanized Area (UA) > 0, low density urban: distance to UA = 0 & % developed land cover, excluding water and ice (land developed) < = 95%, high density urban: distance to UA = 0 & % land developed > 95%.

c

    Wald tests of means for continuous variables and Pearson Chi-Square tests for categorical variables were statistically significant (p < 0.005) across strata.

d Chain and non chain outlets defined by SIC codes 58120307, 58120300-58120315, 58120600, 58120602.

Richardson et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:543   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-543

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