Table 4

Univariate and covariate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality according to social capital

Univariate (imputation)

Univariate (non-imputation)

Covariate adjusted (imputation)

Covariate adjusted (non-imputation)

HR

95%CI

HR

95%CI

HR

95%CI

HR

95%CI


General trust

Generally speaking, would you say that most people can be trusted? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

Depends

0.98

(0.67-1.43)

0.99

(0.70-1.42)

0.98

(0.65-1.50)

0.97

(0.79-1.18)

No (Low SC)

0.80

(0.55-1.16)

0.80

(0.60-1.05)

0.65

(0.45-0.96)

*

0.62

(0.42-0.93)

*

Would you say that most of the time people try to be helpful? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

Depends

1.26

(0.81-1.95)

1.27

(0.84-1.92)

1.29

(0.72-2.32)

0.95

(0.67-1.34)

No (Low SC)

1.69

(1.00-2.87)

1.72

(1.07-2.77)

*

1.49

(0.84-2.64)

1.29

(0.99-1.67)

Do you think most people would try to take advantage of you if they got a chance? (Ref; Yes (Low SC))

Depends

0.94

(0.54-1.65)

0.94

(0.60-1.48)

1.15

(0.60-2.22)

0.90

(0.41-1.95)

No (High SC)

1.10

(0.49-2.49)

1.11

(0.52-2.38)

1.33

(0.49-3.60)

1.21

(0.42-3.50)

Social support

Do you have someone who listens to your concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

No (Low SC)

1.36

(0.80-2.30)

1.36

(0.86-2.14)

1.11

(0.62-1.99)

1.22

(0.57-2.61)

Do you have someone who looks after you when you are sick and stay in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

No (Low SC)

0.86

(0.60-1.24)

0.86

(0.59-1.26)

0.84

(0.50-1.43)

0.85

(0.45-1.60)

Do you have someone who acknowledges your existence and value? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

No (Low SC)

1.31

(0.65-2.66)

1.32

(0.74-2.36)

1.05

(0.56-1.95)

0.91

(0.55-1.51)

Generalised reciprocity

Do you listen to someone's concerns and complaints? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

No (Low SC)

2.31

(1.49-3.58)

*

2.38

(1.56-3.63)

*

1.57

(0.96-2.55)

1.40

(0.71-2.77)

Do you look after someone when he/she is sick and stays in bed for a few days? (Ref; Yes (High SC))

No (Low SC)

1.71

(1.18-2.47)

*

1.72

(1.23-2.39)

*

0.92

(0.63-1.35)

0.73

(0.51-1.05)

Social network

Political organization or group (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

1.55

(0.58-4.09)

1.55

(0.79-3.02)

1.25

(0.42-3.76)

1.48

(0.63-3.46)

Industrial or trade association (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

2.92

(0.58-14.64)

4.19

(1.46-12.02)

*

1.95

(0.38-9.97)

2.51

(0.77-8.14)

Volunteer group (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

1.76

(0.81-3.83)

1.75

(1.09-2.80)

*

1.06

(0.38-2.95)

0.95

(0.54-1.67)

Citizen or consumer group (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

1.76

(0.45-6.90)

2.07

(1.00-4.30)

1.14

(0.21-6.11)

0.92

(0.56-1.51)

Religious organization or group (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

1.17

(0.77-1.80)

1.19

(0.95-1.50)

1.25

(0.73-2.14)

1.54

(0.84-2.85)

Sports group or club (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

2.32

(1.41-3.82)

*

2.33

(1.72-3.17)

*

1.42

(0.78-2.59)

1.72

(1.11-2.68)

*

Neighbourhood association / Senior citizen club / Fire-fighting team (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

1.19

(0.94-1.52)

1.22

(1.03-1.44)

*

1.11

(0.86-1.43)

1.19

(0.95-1.48)

Leisure activity group (Ref; yes)

No (Low SC)

2.24

(1.36-3.68)

*

2.32

(1.52-3.54)

*

1.54

(0.92-2.57)

1.60

(1.10-2.32)

*

How often do you see your friends? (Ref; Once or more/month)

Several/year

1.00

(0.64-1.58)

0.99

(0.68-1.42)

0.92

(0.58-1.46)

0.87

(0.40-1.87)

Rarely

2.41

(1.31-4.45)

*

2.44

(1.40-4.26)

*

1.64

(0.90-2.98)

1.62

(0.82-3.22)

Having no friend

3.40

(2.10-5.52)

*

3.55

(2.37-5.32)

*

1.81

(1.02-3.23)

*

2.10

(0.71-6.26)


Multiple imputation Cox proportional hazard models: the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi, Japan, 2003-2008, Women1.

1 Adjusted for age, BMI, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education.

* Statistically significant variable (p < 0.05).

Aida et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:499   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-499

Open Data