Table 1

Definitions of risk factors*

Alcohol consumption

Long term high risk alcohol consumption: Greater than 75 mls of alcohol consumed per day for men, and greater than 50 mls of alcohol consumed per day for women.

Long term low risk alcohol consumption: Less than 50 mls of alcohol consumed per day for men, and less than 25 mls of alcohol consumed per day for women.

High body mass index

Obese or overweight: BMI greater than 25, based on self-reported height and weight.

Normal weight: BMI less than 25, based on self-reported height and weight (including underweight).

Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption

Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption: Consumption below the recommended minimum of 2 serves fruit and 5 serves vegetables daily.

Adequate consumption: Consumption at or above the recommended minimum of 2 serves fruit and 5 serves vegetables daily.

Intimate partner violence

High psychological distress has been used as a proxy for current exposure to intimate partner violence: High or very high levels of psychological distress (score 22-50 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale -10).

Moderate psychological distress has been used as a proxy for past exposure to intimate partner violence: Moderate levels of psychological distress (score 10-21 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale -10).

Physical inactivity

Inactive: Sedentary or low activity level.

Active: Moderate to high activity level (i.e. 3 sessions of at least 20 to 40 minutes vigorous exercise or 5 sessions of at least 30 minutes moderate exercise per week).

Tobacco smoking

Current smokers: Persons who smoke tobacco on a regular or irregular daily basis.

Ex-smokers: Persons who no longer smoke on a regular or irregular basis.


*These definitions were used to categorise cases in the National Health Survey to assess differences in workforce behaviour. The impact on health outcomes associated with these risk factors in our models were based on mortality and morbidity rates by age group and gender in the determination of age/sex specific population attributable fractions taken from the 2003 Australian Burden of Disease Study [1]. BMI: Body mass index.

Cadilhac et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:483   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-483

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