Table 2

*Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between maternal characteristics and folic acid supplement before and during pregnancy

FOLIC-ACID USE BEFORE PREGNANCY

FOLIC-ACID USE DURING PREGNANCY

Characteristic

None n = 265

<1,000 μg/day n = 209

≥ 1,000 μg/day n = 64

<1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI)

≥ 1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI)

None n = 182

<1,000 μg/day n = 295

≥ 1,000 μg/day n = 62

<1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI)

≥ 1,000 μg/day OR(95%CI)


Maternal age at beginning of pregnancy

<25 years

107

50

9

1.00

1.00

69

81

16

1.00

1.00

25-34 years

117

107

36

1.42 (0.83-2.43)

2.21 (0.87-5.59)

90

137

33

0.65 (0.37- 1.14)

0.82 (0.32-2.09)

35+

41

51

19

1.31 (0.68-2.54)

2.20 (0.76-6.42)

22

77

12

1.60 (0.77-3.33)

1.49 (0.44-5.06)

Maternal ethnicity

African American

165

71

21

1.00

1.00

137

98

22

1.00

1.00

Caucasian

85

122

39

2.00 (1.18-3.38)

2.99 (1.28- 7.00)

35

175

36

4.70 (2.60-8.51)

5.09 (2.07-12.49)

Asian/Native American

12

12

2

1.04 (0.39-2.80)

0.87 (0.15- 5.00)

8

16

2

1.10 (0.40-3.01)

0.77 (0.13-4.52)

Maternal marital status

Married or live with partner

127

164

49

2.66 (1.59-4.45)

1.92 (0.86-4.33)

84

215

40

1.44 (0.87-2.41)

1.10 (0.46-2.69)

Not married or living with partner

137

45

15

1.00

1.00

97

80

21

1.00

1.00

Maternal education

Less than high school

41

19

2

1.00

1.00

26

31

6

1.00

1.00

High school graduate/GED

97

39

10

1.12 (0.47-2.65)

3.40 (0.37-31.1)

78

61

7

0.85 (0.38-1.93)

0.62 (0.13-3.01)

College graduate/Graduate school Some college

126

151

52

1.70 (0.74-3.90)

7.60 (0.89-65.2)

77

203

48

1.69 (0.74-3.86)

2.37 (0.53-10.6)

Second hand smoke

Yes

98

47

13

0.63 (0.36-1.12)

1.42 (0.57-3.50)

73

69

16

0.48 (0.27-0.84)

0.54 (0.21-1.38)

No

165

159

50

1.00

1.00

107

222

45

1.00

Parity

One

80

71

22

1.00

1.00

45

103

25

1.00

1.00

Two

51

46

16

1.02 (0.55-1.90)

1.63 (0.65-4.09)

36

63

14

0.90 (0.46-1.78)

0.73 (0.26-2.04)

Three or more

126

89

25

1.07 (0.62-1.85)

1.74 (0.69-4.04)

94

126

20

1.12 (0.61-2.04)

0.65 (0.26-1.62)

Pre-pregnancy body mass index

<25 kg/m2

76

67

27

1.00

1.00

46

101

24

1.00

1.00

≥25 kg/m2

155

114

32

1.07 (0.67-1.71)

0.79 (0.39-1.59)

108

164

29

0.83 (0.50-1.39)

0.46 (0.20-1.05)

Co-morbid conditions

Any chronic disease

105

77

13

0.83 (0.52-1.31)

0.45 (0.21-0.97)

70

101

24

0.92 (0.56-1.50)

0.95 (0.43-2.12)

None

159

131

51

1.00

1.00

110

194

37

1.00

1.00

Cigarette smoking during pregnancy

Yes

69

36

7

0.82 (0.43-1.56)

0.40 (0.12-1.28)

36

64

13

2.37 (1.21-4.65)

1.39 (0.46-4.19)

No

195

173

57

1.00

1.00

145

231

48

1.00

1.00


*Odds ratios are mutually adjusted, referents are women reporting no supplement use

Hoyo et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:46   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-46

Open Data