Table 1

Food groupings in dietary pattern analysis

Food groups

Food items

Bread and grain

Refined and whole bread and grain, pasta, cookies/cakes, breakfast cereal, porridge, rice

Vegetables and roots

Vegetables, legumes, potato, starchy vegetables


Fruit, fruit juice, berries, melons


Red meat, poultry, fish, egg, offal


Milk, fermented milk, yoghurt, cheese

Edible fat

Vegetable oil and animal fat

Koochek et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:411   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-411

Open Data