Assessing secondary attack rates among household contacts at the beginning of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Ontario, Canada, April-June 2009: A prospective, observational study
1 Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
2 Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
3 Toronto Public Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
4 York Region Health Department, Newmarket, Ontario, Canada
5 Oxford County Public Health and Emergency Services, Woodstock, Ontario, Canada
6 Peel Public Health, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
7 Haliburton, Kawartha, Pine Ridge District Health Unit, Port Hope, Ontario, Canada
8 Middlesex-London Health Unit, London, Ontario, Canada
9 Sudbury & District Health Unit, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada
10 Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit, Barrie, Ontario, Canada
11 Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
BMC Public Health 2011, 11:234 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-234Published: 14 April 2011
Understanding transmission dynamics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in various exposure settings and determining whether transmissibility differed from seasonal influenza viruses was a priority for decision making on mitigation strategies at the beginning of the pandemic. The objective of this study was to estimate household secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza in a susceptible population where control measures had yet to be implemented.
All Ontario local health units were invited to participate; seven health units volunteered. For all laboratory-confirmed cases reported between April 24 and June 18, 2009, participating health units performed contact tracing to detect secondary cases among household contacts. In total, 87 cases and 266 household contacts were included in this study. Secondary cases were defined as any household member with new onset of acute respiratory illness (fever or two or more respiratory symptoms) or influenza-like illness (fever plus one additional respiratory symptom). Attack rates were estimated using both case definitions.
Secondary attack rates were estimated at 10.3% (95% CI 6.8-14.7) for secondary cases with influenza-like illness and 20.2% (95% CI 15.4-25.6) for secondary cases with acute respiratory illness. For both case definitions, attack rates were significantly higher in children under 16 years than adults (25.4% and 42.4% compared to 7.6% and 17.2%). The median time between symptom onset in the primary case and the secondary case was estimated at 3.0 days.
Secondary attack rates for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were comparable to seasonal influenza estimates suggesting similarities in transmission. High secondary attack rates in children provide additional support for increased susceptibility to infection.