Table 3

Impact of legislation on non-compliance reported by included studies on mobile phone usage in vehicles

Data for non-compliance


Study

Location

Pre legislation % (sampling interval before legislation)

Post legislation % - Time 1 (sampling interval after legislation)

Post legislation % - Time 2 (sampling interval after legislation)

Method used to obtain data


Johal et al[59]. and Hussain et al[60].

UK, Birmingham

1.85 (10 weeks)

0.97 (10 weeks)

1.63 (24 months)

Direct observation of usage


Walker et al[61].

UK, London

2.3 (4 weeks)

2.6 (4 weeks)

-

Direct observation of usage


Broughton[62]

UK, London

-

-

2.6 (36 months)

Direct observation of usage


Constant et al[63].

France, nationwide

4.2 (24 months)

2.2 (24 months)

-

Self report of usage


Foss et al[64].

US, North Carolina

11.0 (4 to 8 weeks)

11.8 (20 weeks)

-

Direct observation of usage


Mccartt et al. [42,65]

US, New York City

2.3 (24 weeks)

1.1 (16 weeks)

2.1 (12 months)

Direct observation of usage


Mccartt et al[38,44].

US, Washington DC

6.1 (12 weeks)

3.5 (12 weeks)

4.0 (12 months)

Direct observation of usage


Rajalin et al[66].

Finland, nationwide

55.8 (no data)

15.2 (no data)

20.0 (no data)

Self report of usage


Key: * data on under 18 year olds only

Wong et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:222   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-222

Open Data