Table 1

Internal Reliability, Sample Items, and Response Options for Multi-Item Scales

Scale

Number of items

α

Sample Item

Response Options


    Psychological Factors

Sun protection benefits

8

.84

If people protected themselves from the sun, they wouldn't be as likely to get skin cancer

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Sunscreen barriers

7

.85

The nuisance of applying sunscreen may keep me from using it

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Sun protection behavior benefits

6

.69

How much do you think it helps to wear a hat to protect yourself from the harmful rays of the sun?

1 = not at all helpful to

5 = extremely helpful

Benefits of sunbathing

7

.94

I feel more attractive with a tan

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Sunscreen self-efficacy

8

.88

How confident are you that you can use sunscreen while doing outdoor activities in the winter?

1 = not at all confident to

5 = extremely confident

Photo-aging concerns

3

.84

If I were not to use sun protection, my skin would be very susceptible to wrinkling

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Comparative perceived risk

3

.67

How would you rate your chances of developing melanoma compared with other people with a similar family history of melanoma?

1 = much lower to

5 = much higher

Perceived severity of melanoma

6

.81

How severely would developing melanoma disrupt your personal health and physical comfort?

1 = not at all disruptive to

6 = extremely disruptive

    Social Influence Factors

Image norms for tanness

5

.62

I think to be a successful TV star, you should have a suntan

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Sun protection norms

7

.76

My friends and family wear protective clothing, like a shirt or hat, on a regular basis when in the sun

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree

Sunbathing norms

5

.74

My friends and family sunbathe on a regular basis

1 = strongly disagree to

6 = strongly agree


Manne et al. BMC Public Health 2011 11:122   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-122

Open Data