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Withdrawal users' experiences of and attitudes to contraceptive methods: a study from Eastern district of Tehran, Iran

Parvin Rahnama12, Alireza Hidarnia1*, Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi1, Anoushiravan Kazemnejad3, Zeinab Ghazanfari4 and Ali Montazeri5

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Health Education, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Tarbiat Moderes University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Public Health, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

5 Department of Mental Health, Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

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BMC Public Health 2010, 10:779  doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-779

Published: 22 December 2010



The aim of this study was to explore withdrawal users' experiences of and attitudes to contraceptive methods in Tehran, Iran.


This was a cross-sectional study. A sample of women attending a health care center in Tehran, Iran was entered into the study. To collect data structured interviews were conducted.


In all 300 women who were using withdrawal took part in the study. Of these, 210 women (70%) indicated that they were used modern contraceptive methods previously. The mean duration for withdrawal use was 6.5 (SD = 4.9) and for modern contraceptive it was 2.3 (SD = 2.9) years. The most common reasons for using withdrawal were: no cost involvement, did not need medical advice, having fewer side effects and easier to use than other methods. The main obstacles to use modern contraceptives were: health concerns, fear of side effects, misinformation, lack of confidence and sexual dissatisfaction.


The study results suggest that withdrawal users carry misconceptions about modern contraception and exaggerate its related health problems. Indeed these are important issues for the understanding of attitudes and experiences of women in Iran. The findings from this study might be essential for making evidence-based policy decisions, and for planning, monitoring and evaluating reproductive health programs in Iran and elsewhere.