Table 1

Characteristics of study participants according to global sleep quality, general perceived stress and sleep duration*

Global Sleep Quality Score

P for trend


High Quality Sleep

(lowest tertile)

Medium Quality Sleep

(medium tertile)

Low Quality Sleep

(upper tertile)


Score Range

0 - 4

5 - 7

8 - 19


N

576

403

536


Age

0.13

< 50 years

206 (35.8)

170 (42.2)

205 (38.3)

≥ 50 years

370 (64.2)

233 (57.8)

331 (61.7)

Gender

<0.0001

Men

182 (31.6)

133 (33.0)

112 (20.9)

Women

394 (68.4)

270 (67.0)

424 (79.1)

BMI, kg/m2

<0.0001

≤ 25

162 (29.4)

90 (23.2)

122 (23.6)

> 25 and < 30

215 (39.0)

146 (37.6)

152 (29.3)

≥ 30

174 (31.6)

152 (39.2)

244 (47.1)

Smoking Status

0.05

Current Smoker

76 (13.3)

53 (13.2)

101 (18.9)

Former Smoker

118 (20.7)

89 (22.1)

97 (18.1)

Non-smoker

377 (66.0)

260 (64.7)

337 (63.0)

Physical Activity§

<0.0001

Yes

461 (80.4)

286 (71.0)

374 (70.0)

No

112 (19.6)

117 (29.0)

160 (30.0)

Education#

0.02

Less than HS

53 (9.2)

28 (7.0)

68 (12.8)

HS graduate

132 (23.0)

101 (25.0)

138 (25.9)

More than HS

390 (67.8)

274 (70.0)

326 (61.3)

Hypertension

0.17

Yes

314 (54.5)

225 (56.1)

320 (60.0)

No

262 (45.5)

176 (43.9)

213 (40.0)

Diabetes

0.02

Yes

92 (16.0)

54 (13.5)

108 (20.3)

No

484 (84.0)

345 (86.5)

425 (79.7)

High Cholesterol

0.02

Yes

200 (34.8)

154 (38.6)

226 (43.1)

No

375 (65.2)

245 (61.4)

299 (56.9)

History of MI

0.0003

Yes

30 (5.2)

14 (3.5)

51 (9.6)

No

545 (94.8)

388 (96.5)

482 (90.4)

Financial Stress

<0.0001

Lowest tertile

272 (47.2)

132 (32.8)

126 (23.5)

Middle tertile

186 (32.3)

131 (32.6)

155 (29.9)

Upper tertile

118 (20.5)

139 (34.6)

255 (47.6)

Total Family Income

<0.0001

< 25 k

111 (21.5)

83 (22.6)

166 (34.5)

≥25 k and <50 k

167 (32.3)

105 (28.6)

143 (29.7)

≥50 k and <75 k

87 (16.8)

73 (19.89)

94 (19.5)

≥75 k

152 (29.4)

106 (28.9)

78 (16.22)


General Perceived Stress Score

P for trend


Low Stress

(lowest tertile)

Medium Stress

(middle tertile)

High Stress

(highest tertile)


N

517

523

475


Age

0.01

< 50 years

171 (34.1)

204 (39.5)

203 (43.2)

≥50 years

331 (65.9)

312 (60.5)

267 (56.8)

Gender

0.8

Men

162 (31.3)

150 (28.7)

115 (24.2)

Women

355 (68.7)

373 (71.3)

360 (75.8)

BMI, kg/m2

0.06

≤25

130 (27.0)

127 (25.8)

103 (22.5)

>25 and <30

186 (38.6)

162 (32.9)

160 (34.9)

≥30

166 (34.4)

203 (41.3)

195 (42.6)

Smoking Status

0.004

Current Smoker

64 (12.5)

61 (11.7)

105 (22.2)

Former Smoker

120 (23.4)

110 (21.1)

74 (15.6)

Non-smoker

329 (64.1)

350 (67.2)

295 (62.2)

Physical Activity§

0.003

Yes

407 (79.2)

398 (76.2)

316 (66.7)

No

107 (20.8)

124 (23.8)

158 (33.3)

Education#

<0.0001

Less than HS

34 (6.8)

40 (7.8)

67 (14.3)

HS graduate

90 (19.9)

112 (21.8)

158 (33.8)

More than HS

377 (15.3)

362 (70.4)

243 (51.9)

Hypertension

0.2

Yes

274 (53.1)

292 (56.0)

293 (61.9)

No

242 (46.9)

229 (44.0)

180 (38.1)

Diabetes

0.7

Yes

78 (15.1)

82 (15.7)

94 (20.0)

No

438 (84.9)

439 (84.3)

377 (80.0)

High Cholesterol

0.7

Yes

190 (37.1)

196 (37.7)

194 (41.5)

No

322 (62.9)

324 (62.3)

273 (58.5)

History of MI

0.03

Yes

27 (5.2)

34 (6.5)

34 (7.2)

No

488 (94.8)

489 (93.5)

438 (92.8)

Financial Stress

<0.0001

Lowest tertile

281 (55.9)

170 (32.9)

65 (13.8)

Middle tertile

154 (30.7)

194 (37.6)

118 (25.1)

Upper tertile

67 (13.4)

152 (29.5)

287 (61.1)

Total Family Income

<0.0001

< 25 k

75 (16.3)

118 (25.4)

163 (38.4)

≥ 25 k and < 50 k

138 (30.0)

127 (27.3)

143 (33.6)

≥ 50 k and < 75 k

98 (21.3)

90 (19.3)

63 (14.8)

≥ 75 k

149 (32.4)

130 (28.0)

56 (13.2)


Sleep Duration Categories±

P for trend


> 7 hrs

6-7 hrs

5-6 hrs

< 5 hrs


N

307

341

707

157


Age

0.003

< 50 years

115 (37.5)

129 (37.8)

279 (39.5)

56 (35.7)

≥ 50 years

192 (62.5)

212 (62.2)

428 (60.5)

101 (64.3)

Gender

0.2

Men

74 (24.1)

106 (31.1)

207 (29.3)

39 (24.8)

Women

233 (75.9)

235 (68.9)

500 (70.7)

118 (75.2)

BMI, kg/m2

0.03

≤ 25

90 (30.6)

88 (27.0)

165 (24.2)

30 (19.7)

> 25 and < 30

104 (35.4)

122 (37.4)

240 (35.2)

47 (30.9)

≥ 30

100 (34.0)

116 (35.6)

277 (40.6)

75 (49.4)

Smoking Status

0.04

Current Smoker

52 (17.0)

42 (12.4)

102 (14.5)

33 (21.2)

Former Smoker

53 (17.3)

82 (24.2)

147 (20.9)

22 (14.1)

Non-smoker

201 (65.7)

215 (63.4)

455 (64.6)

101 (64.7)

Physical Activity§

0.03

Yes

226 (74.1)

266 (78.0)

523 (74.3)

103 (65.6)

No

79 (25.9)

75 (22.0)

181 (25.7)

54 (34.4)

Education#

0.07

Less than HS

35 (11.4)

32 (9.4)

57 (8.1)

25 (16.0)

HS graduate

77 (25.2)

81 (23.7)

170 (24.1)

41 (26.3)

More than HS

194 (63.4)

228 (66.9)

477 (67.8)

90 (57.7)

Hypertension

0.3

Yes

166 (54.3)

191 (56.0)

399 (56.8)

100 (63.7)

No

140 (45.7)

150 (44.0)

304 (43.2)

57 (36.3)

Diabetes

0.004

Yes

58 (19.1)

46 (13.5)

109 (15.5)

40 (25.5)

No

246 (80.9)

295 (86.5)

594 (84.5)

117 (74.5)

High Cholesterol

0.06

Yes

108 (35.3)

117 (34.5)

286 (41.0)

68 (44.2)

No

198 (64.7)

222 (65.5)

411 (59.0)

86 (55.8)

History of MI

0.007

Yes

24 (7.9)

10 (2.9)

44 (6.2)

16 (10.3)

No

281 (92.1)

331 (97.1)

662 (93.8)

139 (89.7)

Financial Stress

<0.0001

Lowest tertile

118 (38.6)

141 (41.4)

237 (33.5)

33 (21.0)

Middle tertile

102 (33.3)

113 (33.1)

214 (30.3)

42 (26.8)

Upper tertile

86 (28.1)

87 (25.5)

256 (36.2)

82 (52.2)

Total Family Income

<0.0001

< 25 k

85 (31.4)

67 (21.8)

151 (23.3)

55 (40.7)

≥ 25 k and < 50 k

86 (34.0)

86 (28.0)

201 (31.0)

36 (26.7)

≥ 50 k and < 75 k

37 (13.6)

64 (20.9)

130 (20.0)

23 (17.0)

≥ 75 k

57 (21.0)

90 (29.3)

167 (25.7)

21 (15.6)


* Number and percentage for categorical variables; mean and standard deviation for continuous variables;

§Self reported physical activities or exercises such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening or walking (outside of regular job);

Ever told by a doctor, nurse or any health care provider;

Calculated with a chi-square test;

#Classified in less than a high school (HS) graduate, a HS graduate and more than a HS graduate;

±Three participants did not answer the related question.

Bidulescu et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:581   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-581

Open Data