Table 5

Levels of monitored antibiotics (μg/l) in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India using LC-MS/MS

Antibiotics

Site 1

Site 2

Site 3


Ground Water

Municipal Water

At 10:00

At 16:00

At 10:00

At 16:00


Amoxicillin

--

--

--

--

--

--

Ceftriaxone

--

--

--

--

--

--

Amikacin

--

--

--

--

--

--

Ofloxacin

--

--

--

4.5

5.6

7.5

Ciprofloxacin

--

--

2.2

218.3

67.3

236.6

Norfloxacin

--

--

--

6.4

29.6

22.8

Levofloxacin

--

--

--

5.0

6.8

8.8


-- = Below Detection Limit

Site 1 = Incoming safe water (received in hospital only once a day)

Site 2 = At the point of exit of inpatient wards of the hospital

Site 3 = 100 metres from the hospital in subsequent drains

Diwan et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:414   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-414

Open Data