Table 6

Frequency, age-adjusted risk, and risk ratio of the occurrence of lung cancer, identified by hospital or death records, between baseline and 31 December 2005 by number of categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking status among 16,901 adults

Relative risk of lung cancer*


N

Cases

Age-adjusted risk

(95% CI)**

Model A

RR (95% CI)

Model B

RR (95% CI)


Categories of ACEs, No.

0

6124

53

359.4 (268.7-480.6)

1.00 (referent)

1.00 (referent)

1

4411

26

248.8 (168.9-366.3)

0.75 (0.47, 1.20)

0.69 (0.43, 1.11)

2

2681

28

720.5 (394.8-1311.0)

1.52 (0.95, 2.42)

1.35 (0.84, 2.16)

3

1599

18

805.5 (492.8-1313.9)

1.92 (1.11, 3.33)

1.58 (0.90, 2.76)

4 or 5

1637

15

641.0 (373.9-1096.6)

1.88 (1.04, 3.41)

1.51 (0.83, 2.78)

6, 7, or 8

449

4

635.8 (239.5-1676.8)

2.70 (0.94, 7.72)

1.83 (0.63, 5.35)

P for trend = 0.001

P for trend = 0.017

Smoking status

Never

8589

16

108.4 (64.9-179.8)

1.00 (referent)

Former

6879

90

539.6 (426.0-683.2)

4.83 (2.80-8.33)

Current, <20 cig/d

870

13

1166.8 (676.2-2006.2)

10.11 (4.78-21.39)

Current, ≥ 20 cig/d

563

25

3448.5 (2210.2-5342.7)

25.48 (13.10-49.56)

Total

16,901

144

432.3 (362.2-515.7)


ACEs, adverse childhood experiences RR, risk ratio CI, confidence interval

* Lung cancer cases identified through either a hospital discharge diagnosis of lung cancer defined by ICD-9 code 162 or an underlying cause of death from lung cancer defined by ICD-9 code 162 for deaths between 1995-1998; ICD-10 code C34 for deaths between 1999 and 2005.

** Rate (per 100,000 population) age-standardized to the 2000 Census population for California.

Model A adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, married, financial problems

Model B adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, married, financial problems, smoking status, parental smoking history. In addition to the RR estimates for ACE score, we show the RR estimates for smoking status from the regression model.

Brown et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:20   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-20

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