Table 2

Definition and age-standardized prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) at baseline by smoking: Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, California, 1995-1997

Ever Smoked, %

(n = 8551)

Never Smoked, %

(n = 8786)


Childhood Abuse

Emotional

16.0

10.4

    (Did a parent or other adult in the household ...)

1) Often or very often swear at you, insult you, or put you down?

2) Sometimes, often, or very often act in a way that made you that you might be physically hurt?

Physical

36.9

26.1

    (Did a parent or other adult in the household ...)

1) Often or very often push, grab, slap, or throw something at you?

2) Often or very often hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured?

Sexual

27.3

19.2

    (Did an adult or person at least 5 years older ever ...)

1) Touch or fondle you in a sexual way?

2) Have you touch their body in a sexual way?

3) Attempt oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?

4) Actually have oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with you?

Household dysfunction

Substance abuse

39.7

27.7

1) Live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic?

2) Live with anyone who used street drugs?

Mental Illness

26.1

20.1

1) Was a household member depressed or mentally ill?

2) Did a household member attempt suicide?

Mother treated violently

17.7

12.7

    (Was your mother (or stepmother) ...)

1) Sometimes, often, or very often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her?

2) Sometimes, often, or very often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard?

3) Ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes?

4) Ever threatened with or hurt by a knife or gun?

Incarcerated household member

8.2

4.9

1) Did a household member go to prison?

Parental separation or divorce

34.3

24.0

1) Were your parents ever separated or divorced?

Categories of adverse childhood experiences, No.

0

24.7

36.3

1

22.9

26.2

2

17.6

15.9

3

12.8

9.3

4 or 5

15.7

9.6

6, 7, or 8

6.3

2.7


Respondents were defined as exposed to a category if they responded "yes" to one or more of the questions in that category.

Brown et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:20   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-20

Open Data