Table 3

Mean scores on frailty instruments 1 according to sex, age, educational level and income.

GFI

TFI

SPQ


Total sample

Mean (sd)

3.6 (2.8)

4.2 (3.2)

1.9 (1.2)


Sex

Mean (sd)

Male

3.2 (2.7)

3.4 (3.1)

2.1 (1.2)

Female

3.9 (2.8)

4.7 (3.2)

1.7 (1.2)

Z statistic2 (P-value)

-3.31 (0.001)

-4.95 (0.000)

-3.28 (0.001)

Age

Mean (sd)

≤ 74 yrs

3.0 (2.7)

3.3 (3.1)

1.7 (1.2)

75-79 yrs

3.6 (2.8)

4.2 (3.3)

1.9 (1.2)

≥ 80 yrs

4.4 (2.7)

5.3 (3.1)

2.2 (1.2)

Chi-square3 (P-value)

27.58 (0.000)

37.2 (0.000)

15.84 (0.000)

Education

Mean (sd)

No Education/Primary Education

4.1 (3.0)

4.7 (3.5)

2.0 (1.3)

Secondary Education

3.6 (2.7)

4.1 (3.1)

1.8 (1.2)

Higher Education

2.7 (2.2)

3.1 (2.8)

1.7 (1.0)

Chi-square3 (P-value)

12.13 (0.002)

13.47 (0.001)

2.47 (0.291)

Income

Mean (sd)

≤ €900

4.6 (3.0)

5.3 (3.6)

2.2 (1.4)

€901 to €1500

4.0 (2.9)

4.8 (3.4)

1.8 (1.3)

≥ € 1501

2.8 (2.3)

3.1 (2.6)

1.8 (1.0)

Chi-square3(P-value)

29.42 (0.000)

37.16 (0.000)

5.05 (0.080)


1 Higher scores indicate poorer functioning.

2 Mann-Whitney U test

3 Kruskal Wallis test

Metzelthin et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:176   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-176

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