Table 1

Participatory approaches for PPHA



Themes addressed

Transect walk

Walk through colony to meet informally with colony members and observe infrastructure and basic amenities (e.g. electricity, water source).

General information

Local history

Informal discussions with senior colony members on the colony, settlement patterns, housing patterns, etc.

General information

Mapping of social resources

Map key buildings, infrastructure, basic amenities, housing and land patterns, etc., within their colony.

General information, Well-being

Coverage and service matrixes

Identify key institutions, distance to institutions, travel costs, type of services available, perceived quality.

Institutions, Health, Education

Matrix ranking

Comparative ranking and prioritization of quality of different service providers and facilities in the institutions.

Institutions, Health, Education

Mobility mapping

Mapping of distances to institutions based on different needs and identification of barriers in travelling to institutions.

Institutions, Health, Education, Well-being

Force field analysis

Tracing positive and negative factors and forces in place (in and outside the community) regarding situation.

Health, Education, Well-being

Seasonality analysis

Tracing patterns of outcomes (e.g. food security) over the period of one year across seasons. Examine effects for different groups (e.g. men, women, children).

Health, Education, Well-being

Cause effect and impact analysis

Trace causes of key problems (e.g. illness) and explore impacts of problems on different aspects of life.

Health, Education, Well-being

Time line and trend analysis

Trace changes in outcomes (e.g. food security) and beliefs (e.g. spiritual) over different periods of time (e.g. past 30 years).

Health, Education, Well-being

Wealth ranking

Identify different well-being categories with criteria of individuals or households based on participants' own categories, then count the number in each category.


Daily routine analysis

Outline daily activities during a period of 24 hours for individual men and women. Assess characteristics of activities (e.g. high energy tasks, poverty reduction, caring, etc).


Power relation matrix

Identify institutions over which participants feel they have control and those over which they would like to have more.


Mohindra et al. BMC Public Health 2010 10:149   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-149

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