Table 4

Association of Down's syndrome with water fluoride level

Author (Year)

Crude relative risk

Confounding factors discussed in

Controlled for

Validity score

study


Erickson(1976)

1.16(p > 0.05)

Maternal age, race

Yes

3.5

0.96 (p > 0.05)

Erickson(1980)

0.93 (0.7, 1.2)

Maternal age, race

Yes

3.5

Needleman(1974)

1.14

Maternal age

No

2.0

Rapaport (1957)

2.3 (p < 0.01)

Maternal age

No

2.0

2.9 (p < 0.01)

2.4 (p < 0.05)

Rapaport (1963)

3.0(p < 0.001)

Maternal age, minerals in water

No

2.0

Berry (1958)

0.84–1.48

None

No

1.8


Whiting et al. BMC Public Health 2001 1:6   doi:10.1186/1471-2458-1-6

Open Data