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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Clinical and economic ramifications of switching antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia

Douglas E Faries1*, Haya Ascher-Svanum2, Allen W Nyhuis1 and Bruce J Kinon3

Author Affiliations

1 US Statistics, Lilly USA, LLC, Indianapolis, IN, USA

2 US Outcomes Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA

3 Psychosis Medical, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA

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BMC Psychiatry 2009, 9:54  doi:10.1186/1471-244X-9-54

Published: 2 September 2009

Abstract

Background

Switching between antipsychotic medications is common in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, data on clinical and economic outcomes from antipsychotic switching, in particular acute care service use, is fairly limited. The goal of this research was to assess the clinical and economic ramifications of switching antipsychotics during outpatient management of schizophrenia.

Methods

Data from a 1-year randomized, open-label cost-effectiveness study involving typical and atypical antipsychotics were assessed. The study protocol permitted switching of antipsychotics when clinically warranted. The risk of crisis-related events, use of acute-care services, and the time to the initial use of such services were determined in outpatients who switched antipsychotics compared with those who continued with their initial medications. Health care resource utilization data were abstracted from medical records and other sources (e.g., patient self-report), and direct costs were estimated using previously published benchmarks.

Results

Almost one-third of patients (29.3%) underwent a switch from their initial antipsychotic agent, with an average duration of 100 days before such treatment alterations. Compared with their counterparts who remained on their initial therapies, individuals who switched antipsychotics experienced a significantly higher risk of acute-care services, including hospitalization (p = .013) and crisis services (p = .011). Patients undergoing medication switches also used acute-care services significantly sooner (p = .004) and accrued an additional $3,000 (a 25% increase) in annual total health care costs per patient, most of which was due to acute-care expenditures.

Conclusion

Switching antipsychotic medications was found to be associated with considerably poorer clinical and economic outcomes, as reflected by, more frequent and more rapid use of acute-care services compared with persons remaining on their initial treatments.

Trial Registration

Trial ID 2325 in LillyTrials.com (also accessible via ClinicalStudyResults.org).