|Lifestyle medicine for depression|
|Lifestyle element||Evidence level||Cost||Comment|
|Diet||CS, LO||Moderate expense||Relationship found between dietary quality and depression; RCTs now required to validate|
|PA/Exercise||CS*, LO*, CTs||Inexpensive||Strong evidence of efficacy for improving mood|
|Recreation||OB, CTs||Variable expense||No studies exploring recreational activities for depression (aside from music therapy)|
|Relaxation & meditative techniques||CTs||Inexpensive||Evidence supports relaxation techniques (especially with a mindfulness component) in improving mood|
|Sleep||CS, LO, CTs||No expense||Strong causal link between sleep amount and quality, and depression risk|
|Environment||CS, LO, CTs||Potentially not adjustable||Association between reduction of pollution and mood; CTs showing NAT improves mood|
|Socialization||CS, LO||No expense||Strong association between social support/networks and mental health|
|Animal/Pet therapy||CS, CTs||Moderate expense||Studies support the psychological benefits of animals and pets|
|Vices (smoking, alcohol)||CS, LO||Potential to save money||Association between smoking and alcohol, and depressed mood|
CS = Cross-sectional, OB = Observational Study, LO = Longitudinal, CTs - Clinical Trials, NAT = Nature-Assisted Therapy, PA = Physical Activity, Data assessing the relationship between exercise and depression has revealed mixed outcomes.
*Data assessing the relationship between exercise and depression has revealed mixed outcomes.
Sarris et al.
Sarris et al. BMC Psychiatry 2014 14:107 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-14-107